İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı
19. yüzyıl İstanbul mimarisinde endüstriyel camın kullanımı
The use of industrial glass in 19th century architecture of Istanbul
Roma döneminde ilk endüstriyel gelişimi gösteren mimari cam kullanımı Endüstri devrimiyle Avrupa'da hızla yayılmış ve yeni yapı tipolojileri yaratmıştır. Bu tezde bu tezahürlerin 19. yüzyıl Osmanlı mimarisindeki yansımaları incelenmiştir. Bunun için camın kullanımının tarihsel gelişimine bakılmıştır. Endüstri devrimi öncesi ve sonrasında Avrupa mimarisinde görülen gelişmeler gözden geçirilmiştir. Endüstri devrimi öncesinde camın mimaride kullanımı ilk kez Roma döneminde kutsal yapılarda ve daha sonraları hamamlarda kullanımı ile gerçekleşmiştir. M.S. 8. yüzyıldan itibaren, üretim tekniklerinin gelişmesine paralel olarak, özellikle kilise ve manastırlarda yaygın kullanılmıştır. Endüstri devrimi sonrasında cam teknolojisinin yanında çelik teknolojisinin de gelişimi ile çelik-cam mimarisinin önü açılmış, yeni yapı türleri ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu yapı türleri, sera, limonluk ve sergi salonları, pasajlar ve garlar olarak incelenmiş, her birinden en önemlileri örneklenmiştir. Osmanlı kültüründe 19 yüzyıl öncesindeki cam kullanımı ve üretimi gözden geçirilmiştir. Bu dönemde cam kullanımı, alçı kayıtlı "revzen" pencerelerde kullanılan "küçük camlar" ile yine pencereler için silindir tekniğiyle yapılmış cam levhaların kullanılması ile sınırlıdır. 19. yüzyılda ise, III. Selim döneminde İstanbul Beykoz'da cam sanayisini kurma çalışmaları başlamış, 1843 ve 1884 yıllarında iki ayrı cam fabrikası kurulmuştur. Bu iki fabrika da daha sonraları kapanmıştır. Dolayısıyla, 1935'de Paşabahçe Cam Fabrikası kuruluncaya kadar, endüstriyel cam ihtiyacı dışarıdan karşılanmıştır. İstanbul'da önce saraylarda kullanıma giren cam ile ilgili örnekler Dolmabahçe, Çırağan Yıldız Sarayları ve Maslak Kasırları bağlamında incelenmiştir. Botanik bahçeleri, tıp incelemeleri de camın kullanımda önemli bir rol oynamış ve sera ve limonlukların saray dışında da kullanımlarını sağlamıştır. Gelişen İstanbul'un zengin semtlerinin konak, köşk ve yalıların bahçelerinin birçoğunda bulunmuş olan seraların günümüze kalanların sayısı çok azdır. Eski sigorta haritaları ve Başbakanlık Osmanlı arşivi belgelerinden faydalanarak bunların bazılarının varlıkları tespit edilmiştir. Özel bahçelerin dışında da endüstriyel cam kamusal alanda kendini göstermiştir. Pasajlar, tren istasyonları banka vs. gibi yeni yapı tipolojileri Osmanlı başkentine geldikçe, bu malzemenin her türlü renkli ve renksiz kullanımı sokaktaki insanla buluşmuştur.
This study examines the effects on the 19th century architecture and city life of Istanbul of the industrial glass developed and used in European architecture following the industrial revolution. The first two parts of the thesis review the development of glass as a building material and the development of glass industry in the periods before and after the industrial revolution. Glass has been manufactured only for making objects and articles from the discovery in the 13th century BC until the 40's AC. The development of glass blowing technique most probably in Sidon in the first century BC was a major step forward to be used as a building material in architecture during the Roman period. The mould-blowing technique appeared in 25 AD led to large scale production of glass and the glass with the phenomenon of transparency was introduced to the citizens of the Empire and hence introduced to architecture. The first windowpanes were used at the Atreum Vestae, the sacred building of the six Vestal Virgins. The type of window glass used in early Roman period was crown glass which was made by blowing the melted glass and then spinning with sufficient speed to convert into a disc uniform in thickness except the centre where the punty was attached and formed the "bull's eye". Crown was usually superior in quality and was widely used not only in houses but in religious buildings. Glassmakers were confined to monasteries to produce stained glass for the windows of abbeys by the 13th century. The cylinder technique developed in 13th century enabled the production of relatively large flat glass panels. Church buildings started to be glazed with this glass. In 15th century, many glass techniques such as "crystal", "filigree", "millefiori" and "calcedonia" were also developed in Venice. In 1688, Louis Lucas in France developed "mirror glass process" eliminating smoothness and transparency problems, and enabling the production of larger glass panels. Accordingly, conservatories have been constructed throughout Europe in 17th and 18th centuries. Following industrial revolution, glass technology has been further developed and glass panels were available in size and in volume as required. On the other hand, production of steel in large scale was realized following the developments carried out by Sir Henry Bessemer in 1855. These developments paved the way for glass – steel architecture in Europe. Kohlmaier and Sartory divide the development of glass and iron buildings in the 19th century into four phases. 1800-1830 was the time of early industrialization and marks the start of the use of iron as a building material. The use of cast-iron load-bearing space frames can be seen in this period. The use of iron in building houses was avoided and instead, it was used in building passages and railway stations which were the new types of buildings of this period. Small private greenhouses enclosed by simple geometric forms were also evident. Regarding this period, Panorama Passage in Paris (1800) and a private green house in Sezincote in England (1806) and the roof gardens of Covent Garden market place (1827) and Barr and Sugden's house (1830) in London were briefly studied as examples of this period. 1830-1850 was the time of expansion of the industrial revolution. The increase in the spans of railway stations and covered markets are characteristic of the period. Glass covered botanical gardens and winter gardens were opened for the public amusement. The greenhouses in Kew Gardens in London, namely Architectural Conservatory (1836), Palm House (1844), Waterlily House (1850) and Temperate House (1859) were studied as examples. 1850-1870 was the period of the introduction of industrialized mass production. Here important were the perfection and widespread use of glass roofs in glasshouses, exhibition buildings and wide-span halls. Examples studied were Crystal Palace in London (1851), a monumental passage Galleria Vittoria Emanuele II in Milan (1865) and the railway stations King's Cross (1851) and Paddington (1852) in London. Finally, 1870-1890 was the time of further expansion of mass production of steel and glass, and refinement of the space-frame concept. Factory building was the only new type of building appeared and most of the exhibition buildings and green houses were erected during this period. Additionally, more than simple forms, rounded and organic shapes were used in welded structures. A private greenhouse in Theydon Grove in England was the example studied. In the third part of the thesis, a comprehensive research on the use of industrial glass in 19th century architecture of Istanbul was carried out. Before the 19th century, glass production in Ottoman Empire was under control of the royalty and was confined to small glass workshops in the district between Edirnekapı and Tekfur Palace in Istanbul. Here produced only small sized transparent and colored glasses and crystal in the use for gas lamps, vases and the windows named "revzen". Because of the limited production, most of the glass was imported. In 19th century, attempts for glass production were initiated by the sultan Selim III (1789-1807). According to the documents in "Ottoman Archives of the Prime Ministry" (BOA), the first glass production plant was erected in Beykoz region of Istanbul starting up in 1843. Second glass plant was set up in the same region by an Italian, S.D. Modiano in 1884. Both plants were closed down at the end of the century and hence the glass industry has been suspended until 1935 when Paşabahçe Glass Plant was erected. The BOA documents indicate that the early use of industrial glass in Ottoman dates back only to 18th century and first application, most probably, was the orangery at Sofa Kiosk in Topkapı Palace (1709). From the document dated 1737, it is understood that no greenhouses were present except the four orangeries in Topkapı Palace, Beşiktaş Palace and Gardens of Beylerbeyi. Construction of the whole glass and iron orangeries and greenhouses has started merely in 19th century. Examples of glasshouses such as orangeries and greenhouses built in the Palaces, houses and greeneries, and passages and khans in the commercial regions, of Istanbul in 19th century were examined to elucidate reasons for the need, architectural styles and materials used. Of utmost importance is the Glass Kiosk in Dolmabahçe Palace. Sultan Abdülmecit had this palace built in between 1842 and 1856 to realize his admiration to western style of living. In 1853, the greenhouse named Glass Kiosk was also built in the southwest wing of the Palace. The Kiosk as a greenhouse was the first application in Ottoman palace architecture and was inspired by Crystal Palace. The windows on two facades contain three circular forms and the forms are covered by colored glass with flower patterns. The colored glasses are also opaque in nature as were produced by the method of acid etching. These indicate that the space was designed merely not for plants but for human usage. The orangerie in Çırağan Palace is also an example of historical importance. The palace was built in neoclassic and orientalist style during Sultan Abdülaziz in 1871. An orangerie was also built in the backyard but was demolished by the sultan one year after in 1872. This is why exact location of the orangerie was not well known. Evidences indicate that the three floored glasshouse was presumably located on the set of Yıldız Park facing at the avenue. Production process of the glasshouse is also mysterious. Commonly shared view is that it was produced twice. However, the BOA documents covering the period in between 1860 and 1869 give different information. It seems that the greenhouse was manufactured in London in line with the contract but was kept as constructed in the factory yard for some years as no order was released for the shipment. The reason why it was demolished after only a year of usage is also not clear but humorous reasoning that Sultan was annoyed from the noise of thousand birds freed and the heat accumulated inside is common. Despite all, acoustic and visual effects of the house with its location and three floor height should probably have been remarkable. The greenhouse in Maslak Pavilion, numerous greenhouses in Yıldız Palace, the botanic gardens of small size, mostly demolished greenhouses and orangeries of the private residences on the shores of Haliç and Bosphorus and in Kadıköy region examined reflect reasonably wide usage of industrial glass in 19th century in Istanbul.