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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı / Mimarlık Tarihi Bilim Dalı

2017

19. yüzyılda bı̇r Halı̇ç yerleşı̇mı̇ olarak Ayvansaray

Ayvansaray, as a Golden Horn settlement in the 19th century

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Özet:

Haliç kıyıları Byzantion döneminden beri liman faaliyetlerinin yürütüldüğü ve buna bağlı olarak da ticaretin geliştiği bir bölge olmuştur. Osmanlı Dönemi'nde, Bizans limanları terk edilmemiş var olan işlevlerini sürdürmüşlerdi. Buna bağlı olarak Haliç, kentin en önemli limanı olmaya devam etmiş, ilerleyen yüzyıllarda burada çeşitli alanlarda faaliyet gösteren zanaat atölyeleri de kurulmuştur. Haliç kıyısında yer alan semtlerden biri olan Ayvansaray fetihten sonra Müslümanlar tarafından tercih edilen bir bölge olmuş, burada inşa edilen mescitlerin etrafında mahalleler kurulmuştur. Müslüman, Rum ve Yahudilerin birlikte yaşadığı bilinen bölgede, 17. yüzyıla dek gelişerek devam eden çok kültürlü yerleşim ve ticaret faaliyeti 18. yüzyılda yerini sayfiye işlevlerine bırakmıştı. Bu dönemde Ayvansaray kıyılarında hanım sultanların yalıları yer alıyordu. 19. yüzyılda Ayvansaray bölgesini inceleyen bu çalışmada var olan kent dokusu ve geçirdiği değişimler araştırılmış, bölgede yaşayan insanların sosyo-ekonomik durumları incelenmiştir. Buna göre 19. yüzyıla kadar mevcut kent dokusunu koruyan Ayvansaray, bu tarihten sonra kent planlamasına dair yargıların değişmesiyle birlikte bir takım değişimler geçirmişti. Bu değişimde yangınların rolü ise göz ardı edilemeyecek kadar büyüktü. Yangınlardan sonra, tahrip olmuş bölgelerde bir planlama yapılıyor ve sokaklar hazırlanan plana göre yeniden tasarlanıyordu. Söz konusu planlamalar, Aksaray ve Pera gibi bölgelerde daha kapsamlı projeler ile gerçekleştirilirken; Ayvansaray gibi küçük mahallelerde sadece birkaç sokağın düzenlenmesiyle sonuçlanıyor ve çoğu durumda tasarlanan plan uygulanmıyordu. Sonuçta bölge, üç sokağı düzenlenmiş fakat çoğunlukla mevcut eski sokaklarını koruyan bir dokuya sahip oluyordu. Bölgenin fiziksel dokusu gibi toplumsal dokusu da 19. yüzyılda mevcut halini koruyordu. Her türlü gelir grubuna ait insanın yaşadığı Ayvansaray'da, 17. yüzyıldan beri var olan zanaatkarlar burada hâlâ faaliyet göstermekteydi. 19. yüzyılda bölge insanının genelde esnaf ve zanaatkâr olduğu görülmektedir. Müslümanlar daha çok geçici işlerde çalışan işçiler iken, genelde şişeci, tenekeci, hırdavatçı, ayakkabı tamircisi olan Yahudiler ise her türlü tamirat işiyle uğraşıyorlardı. Rumların ise daha çok teknik konularda ön plana çıktığı görülmektedir. Duvarcılık, döşemecilik, sıvacılık gibi mesleklerde ön plana çıkan Rumlar, ticaret hayatında da oldukça aktifti. Bölgede çok sayıda bakkal, kürkçü ve tüccar yaşıyordu. Bunlar dışından Rumların meyhanecilikle de uğraştığı görülmektedir. İş kollarının her bir etnik grup bazında farklılık göstermesinin yanı sıra bekârlar ve bekâr olmayanlar arasındaki fark da dikkat çekicidir. Bekarların çoğunu işçi olarak nitelendirmek mümkündü. Nitekim bu kişiler kayıkçılık, hamallık yapıyor ve fabrikalarda işçi olarak çalışıyordu. Fakat burada ailesiyle birlikte yaşayan kişiler genelde zanaatkardı ve bunun yanında tüccarlık, bakkallık, kürkçülük gibi meslekleri tercih ediyorlardı. Endüstri Devrimi'nin ardından özellikle 19. yüzyılda başkent İstanbul ve çevresinde devlet eliyle ve özel teşebbüslerle hemen her iş kolunda sanayi tesisi kurulmuştur. Özellikle kentin kıyı bölgeleri tercih edilmiş, bunun sonucunda Haliç'in iki yakası sanayi tesisleriyle dolmuştur. Dolayısıyla buradaki sayfiye işlevi yok olmuş, 19. yüzyılın ortalarından itibaren bölge hızlı bir biçimde sanayileşmeye başlamıştı. 1840'lardan itibaren Haliç kıyılarında önce devletin kurup işlettiği bazı fabrikalar kurulmuş, yüzyılın son çeyreğinde ise özel sanayi tesisleri kurulmaya başlanmıştı. Ayvansaray'da bir sanayi tesisinin kurulması ise ancak 1860'lardan sonra gerçekleşmişti. Söz konusu dönemde Ayvansaray kıyılarında bir un fabrikası, iki kereste fabrikası, iki sabun fabrikası, bir konserve fabrikası ve bir de şişe fabrikası kurulmuştu.

Summary:

In the second half of the nineteenth century, European countries moved to find new markets for their manufactured goods and to provide cheap raw materials. With the development of rail and sea transport, they have established links with the countries where pre-industrial production techniques still exist. One of these countries is the Ottoman Empire. These developments in Europe have greatly influenced the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire signed a treaty with the United Kingdom in 1838, the Tanzimat Fermanı, which was declared a year later in 1839, and the subsequent economic developments caused the city to undergo a necessary change and transformation process. The changes that took place throughout the empire after 1838 also reflected on the urban growth policies and planning studies undertaken in Istanbul. During this period, various projects aimed at establishing the Ottoman industry were introduced and at the beginning of 1840 a series of industrial facilities were established for the production of the goods the state needed. Outside the walls of Theodosius, an industrial area was established along the Marmara coast. Water shores that provide ease of access and power supply are especially preferred. Various industrial structures have been established on both sides of the Bosphorus, the Marmara shores and the Golden Horn, especially on both sides of the Golden Horn, many factories that have been producing goods in various fields were established. Having made a humble start as the town of Blakhernai, Ayvansaray became one of the industrial regions of the city in the 19th century as a district near the Golden Horn. The aim of this study is to observe the transformation of Ayvansaray into a production and industrial zone in the nineteenth century and the changes in the social and architectural texture of the region as a result of this transformation. Therefore, the relation of these industrial structures and the city will be discussed. In this study, the characteristics, social structure, way of life, changes and developments of the region will be tried to be explained from the second half of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. The first part of the work, which will consist of four parts with the exception of the introduction and conclusion sections, begins by looking at the urban aspect of the region from an autonomous town with its own walls to the 19th century. In this section, the history of the region will be mentioned and in the periods until the 19th century, some maps will prepared by analyzing the changes in the area in the site plan scale. Thus, a background will be created and the changes of the region in this period will be more readable. The second part is about the city. Urban developments that could not be considered separately from the Industrial Revolution are studied in this section, and the topographical features and urban texture of the region are examined. In this section, the changes and transformations that the city has undergone during the period will be searched and infrastructure problems will be emphasized. The third part of the work is based on the city and the people who participate in urban life. In this section, the neighborhoods that define the region will be mentioned and the settlement processes of the ethnic groups living there will be examined. The ethnic origins, professions and lifestyles of the mentioned groups will be examined so that a demographic structure will be created. The last part of the work is about the industrial facilities in the region. As a result of the transformation of the region into an industrial zone, in the shores of Ayvansaray industrial structures in various branches of business has been established. The effects of these structures on urban and social texture will be discussed in this section and the relationship between the industrial facilities and the neighborhood will be tried to be defined. Since Byzantion Period, the Golden Horn has been a region where port activities have been carried out and as a result of this trade has developed. In the Ottoman period, the Byzantine harbors continued their existing functions that had not been abandoned. As a result, the Golden Horn continued to be the most important port of the city, and in the following centuries craft workshops operating in various fields were also established here. After the conquest, Ayvansaray, one of the districts on the shore of the Golden Horn, became a preferred region for Muslims and mosques were built and around this new mosques, neighborhoods were developed. Ayvansaray is a region where Muslims, Greeks and Jews lived together. The multicultural settlement and trade activity that continued to develop until the 17th century left the place as a summer resort in the 18th century. During this period, there were inscriptions of lady sultans on Ayvansaray shores. The urban texture and changes in the Ayvansaray region in the 19th century, were researched and the socio-economic status of the people living in the region was examined. According to this, Ayvansaray, which preserves the existing urban texture until the 19th century, has undergone a number of changes with the changing of the judgments on urban planning. The role of fires in this change is too important to ignore. After the fires, there was a planning in the destroyed areas and the streets were redesigned according to this new prepared plan. While these plans are carried out with more comprehensive projects in such areas as Aksaray and Pera; In small neighborhoods such as Ayvansaray, it resulted in the regulation of only a few streets, and in most cases these new plans were not implemented. As a result, the area had a texture that had been arranged three streets, but mostly preserved its existing streets. The social texture, like the physical texture of the region, was preserved in the 19th century. In Ayvansaray, where every kind of income group lives, artisans who have existed since the 17th century were still active here. It is seen that in the 19th century the people of the region are generally artisans and craftsmen. While Muslims were mostly temporary workers, the Jews, usually bottle makers, tinkers, hardware dealers, and shoemakers, were dealing with all kinds of repairs. Greeks, on the other hand, seemed to have come to the forefront in technical matters. The Greek Cypriots, who are in the forefront of the professions such as masonry, upholstery, plastering, are also very active in trade life. Many greengrocers, fur dealers and merchants lived in the Ayvansaray region. Apart from these, the Greeks also seem to have been worked as innkeepers. The difference between the single and non-single workers is noteworthy, as well as the fact that the different types of business are different for each ethnic group. It is possible to describe the majority of the single people as workers. As a matter of fact, these people worked as boatmen, coolies and workers in factories. But the people who lived with their family here were usually craftsmen, and besides they preferred trades such as grocery, fur etc. Following the Industrial Revolution, especially in the 19th century, industrial facilities were established in almost every branch of business by state and private enterprises in and around the capital city Istanbul. Especially the coastal areas of the city have been preferred, and as a result of this, south and north shores of the Golden Horn were filled with industrial facilities. Therefore, the function of the summer resort disappeared, and from the middle of the 19th century the region quickly began to industrialize. From 1840s and onwards, some factories, built and run by the state, on the banks of the Golden Horn were established and private industrial facilities started to be established in the last quarter of the 19th century. The establishment of an industrial plant in Ayvansaray took place only after the 1860s. In that period, a flour factory, two timber factories, two soap factories, one canning factory and one bottle factory were established on Ayvansaray shores.