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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı / Mimarlık Tarihi Bilim Dalı

1929-1946 tarihleri arasında Cumhuriyet Gazetesinde yayımlanmış arkeoloji içerikli haberlerin bir değerlendirmesi

An evaluation of archeology news published on Cumhuriyet Newspaper between 1929 and 1946

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Özet:

Savaştan çıkmış yeni kurulan bir Cumhuriyet'i güçlendirip ayakta sağlam tutacak şeylerden en önemlisinin geçmişini bilen ve sahiplenen bir halk olduğunu bilen Atatürk, bu yolda Türk Tarih Kurumunu kurmuş, kazılar yaptırmış, yurt dışına arkeoloji ve antropoloji alanlarında eğitim görmeleri için öğrenciler ve öğretmenler göndermiştir Bunun sonucunda ise, ülkede arkeoloji ve antropoloji kürsüleri kurulmuş, donanımlı öğretmenler, donanımlı öğrenciler yetiştirilmiştir Atatürk'ün 1938'deki vefatı, İsmet İnönü'nün cumhurbaşkanı oluşu ve bu arada İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nın başlayıp sona ermesi (1939-1945), ülkemizde ve dünyada sosyal ve siyasal dengelerin değişmesine yol açmıştır Bu tezde, ülkede ve dünyada yaşanan değişimler yanında Cumhuriyet Gazetesi'nde basılan arkeoloji haberleri özelinde, hangi haber içeriklerinin aktarıldığı, en fazla yazılan içeriklerin neler olduğu, zaman içinde haberlerin ve içeriklerinin nasıl değiştiği, makale gibi yoruma açık içeriklerde, zaman içinde nasıl yorum farklılıklarının görüldüğü gibi konular okunmaya çalışılmıştır Gazetede basılan arkeolojik haberlerin sayısı 1928'den İkinci Dünya Savaşı'na kadar düzenli olmasa da artmıştır İkinci Dünya Savaşı yıllarında ise ciddi düşüş göstermiştir Birinci ve İkinci Türk Tarih Kongrelerinde neredeyse her gün özellikle Afet İnan'ın konuşmalarının tam metinlerinin verilmesi nedeniyle bu zamanlarda daha fazla haberle karşılaşılsa da Üçüncü Türk Tarih Kongresi zamanında savaş nedeniyle haberler derinlemesine bilgi içermeden yazılmıştır Gazete İstanbul'da basılsa da, yerel bir gazete olmadığı için basılan haberler bu kent ile sınırlı değildir Anadolu'dan ve dünyadan da kazı, araştırma, buluntu, konferans haberleri basılmıştır Taranan yıllar içinde en dikkat çeken haberler Ayasofya mozaiklerinin temizlenmesi ve Sultanahmet Arasta sokağında başlayan Büyük Saray kazıları olmuştur Tezde ayrı ayrı alt başlıklarda anlatılmış içerikler: 'Kazı ve Müze: İstanbul'da Yapılan Kazılar, Araştırmalar ve Müze Haberleri', 'Konferans' ve 'Makale ve Kongre'dir Bu çalışma sonucunda görülmüştür ki, yıllar içinde değişen ülke ve dünya gündemi çevresinde, Cumhuriyet Gazetesinde basılan arkeoloji içerikli haberler 1929-1939 yılları arasında oldukça çeşitliyken, savaş dolayısıyla 1940-1946 yılları arasında sayıca çok azalmıştır İkinci Dünya Savaşı nedeniyle ülkeye gelemeyen yabancı bilim insanlarının yaptığı araştırma ve kazılar sekteye uğrasa da Türk bilim insanlarının çalışmalarının devam ettiğini bilinmektedir Gazetede ise savaş döneminde bu yapılan kazı ve araştırmalar hakkında basılan haberler oldukça azdır Yine savaş nedeniyle yurt dışında geniş çaplı kongre ve konferanslar düzenlenmemiştir Buna bağlı olarak savaş yıllarında yurt dışı kongre/konferans haberleri görülmemektedir ...

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Summary:

As stated by Atatürk, the Turkish nation should understand and embrace its past to sustain and reinforce the newly-built, yet the war-torn Republic of Turkey In line with this vision, he commissioned the establishment of Turkish Historical Society and many archeological excavations and encouraged students to acquire higher education in abroad on archeology and anthropology As part of these efforts, new archeology and anthropology departments were founded to raise qualified lecturers and students After Ataturk's death in 1938, Turkey went into a social and political limbo This thesis strives to explore the changes within the country and the world, as well as the aspects of the archeology news published on "Cumhuriyet" such as the content of the news, the most featured topics, the change in the type of news and their content, the difference of interpretation over time in the content that is open to interpretation such as articles The number of archaeological news published in the newspaper increased, although not regularly, from 1928 to World War II And showed a dramatic drop throughout World War II The news did not include thorough information during the Third Turkish History Congress because of the war, although more and more newspaper articles were encountered in the First and Second Turkish History Congresses as the newspaper featured the full text of Afet Inan's speeches almost every day Even though the newspaper was published in Istanbul, the news was not limited to Istanbul since it was not a local newspaper The newspaper contained articles on excavations, research, conference news from Anatolia and around the world The most featured topics on the newspaper include the cleaning and restoration of Hagia Sophia mosaics and excavations of the Great Palace of Constantinople starting from Arasta Street The thesis includes the sub-headings of "Excavation and Museum: The Excavations Performed in Istanbul and News on Museum," "Conference," and "Article and Congress " This study concluded that in line with the changing local and global agenda over time, the archeology news on "Cumhuriyet" showed diversity between 1929 and 1939, but the number of news experienced a sharp decrease from 1940 to 1946 due to the war Firstly, the first issue under the section that describes the archaeological developments in the country between 1929 and 1946 is the Turkish Historical Society and the History Congresses held during the years studied In the second part, universities, new departments and scientists, students who sent abroad for studying, printed publications are explained In the third section, the excavations and museums opened during the years scanned are explained In the fourth and last part, the institutes established and their studies are explained In the next section of the thesis, I talk about the history and mission of Cumhuriyet Newspaper and in order to understand the layouts of the news published in the newspaper, changes such as the pages of the newspaper and the different subtitles printed on these pages, the number of pages varying over the years and the different contents included in the newspaper were explained The contents of which more news were published during the years scanned were collected under separate subtitles The first of these is the Excavation and Museum news Since the highest number of news items are included in these contents, it is considered appropriate to combine these two main headings and to gather the news about Istanbul under the same main headings Excavations, researches and museum related news located in Istanbul are published in the section where the excavations of the historical peninsula of Istanbul and Hagia Sophia's mosaic works explained The second subtitle is Conference title Under this title, the speeches of foreign scientists, conferences held by the Turkish Historical Society and speeches of indigenous scientists sent abroad on behalf of the museum or Turkish Historical Society were examined The third title is Article and Congress Unlike news, articles are author's thoughts were written with the desire to prove his ideas Because of that, it provided a convenient material for understanding the attitude of the newspaper and the language used in relation to it The main reason why the title of the congress is combined with the title of the article is that almost all the news published in the congress content is about the Turkish History Congress and the most useful source for reading these articles is the articles written about the congress At the end of the chapter, news about congresses attended abroad were also mentioned The fourth and last title is the numerical data section of the news table in which the diagrams created over the news from all scanned years are researched Turkish scientists kept on researching even though the outbreak of the Second World War interrupted foreign scientists to maintain their excavations and research activities in the country That explains why the content of those articles is not diverse The war made it impossible to hold wide-scale congress or conferences abroad; hence we cannot see any congress or conference-related articles in the newspaper during the period of war During this period, the Turkish Historical Society held monthly conferences under the name of "Meeting" to give voice to scientists Foreign scientists were not able to participate in the conferences held in Turkey, stalling off the local archeology research to be communicated across academia The scanned newspaper articles are arranged in chronological order on a table Besides, I also explored how to perform a discourse and content analysis The resources for the newspaper review include the Ataturk Library, the Beyazıt State Library and the online archive of the newspaper As seen from the studies on the general literature, archaeological studies did not utilize this newspaper screening method The most important issue that should not be forgotten in the study is the newspaper law introduced during the Early Republican Period Knowing that, articles and news written in accordance with this law will not be against the government, it would not be wrong to say that everything published is under government control The main purpose of the articles based on published scientific data is to support the imposed Turkish History Thesis instead of providing scientific information about the excavations to the reader If we look at the authors of the news and articles (we have information on 27 authors), 12 of them are educators and 10 of them are deputies Among them are archaeologists, historians and architects As it is understood from this intensity of educators and politicians, the fact that the names of the authors will be recognized by readers in the newspaper not only supported the circulation but also helped to instill the ideas appropriate to the government policy in terms of reliability In some of the reports mentioned in the research, French city planner Henri Prost's observations about Istanbul and the archaeological park plan he proposed were mentioned (The first news mentioned in p 69 can be seen) ...

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