İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı / Mimari Tasarım Bilim Dalı
1960-1980 yılları arasında Denizli'de yapılan apartmanların tasarım, uygulama ve kullanım aşamalarının değerlendirilmesi
The evaluation of design, implementation and usage of apartments in Denizli built between 1960 and 1980
Dilek Avsan - 2015Teze Git (tez.yok.gov.tr)
Geleneksel olandan kopuşu ifade eden modernite kavramı yeni olanı nitelemekte ve güçlü bir değişim düşüncesini içinde barındırmaktadır. Batı kökenli bir kavram olan modernite zamanla tüm alanlarda uygulama alanı bulmuş, günlük yaşamı değiştirmiş ve hızla yayılmıştır. Modernleşme sürecinde, yeni malzeme ve teknoloji ile yapılar inşa edilmiş, yapı sürecinde standartlaşma, endüstrileşme gibi tartışmalar başlamış ve yeni bina tipolojileri oluşmaya başlamıştır. Modernizm, en etkili söylemini ise manifestolar aracılığıyla konutta gerçekleştirmiştir. Sıradan ve modern bireyler için yeni yaşam koşullarına uygun, yeni malzeme ve tekniklerle seri üretime olanak sağlayan konforlu, yalın, sağlıklı ve ideal konutun özellikleri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Evrensel özelliğe sahip modernleşme süreci, uygulandığı yerin dinamiklerine ve yere özgü durumlara göre farklı uygulamaların ortaya çıkmasına neden olmuştur. Türkiye'de çağdaşlaşmanın bir gereği olarak görülen modernleşme sürecinde kentlerin görünümü değişmiş, geleneksel konutun yerini modern apartmanlar almıştır. Modernleşme süreci, büyük kentlerde yaşanan dönüşümün etkisiyle 20. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında Anadolu kentlerinde etkisini göstermiştir. Bu araştırmada Denizli kentinin modernleşme sürecini okuyabilmek için modern mimari uygulamaları nedeniyle kentlerde hızla uygulanmaya başlanan apartman örnekleri incelenmiştir. Denizli'de 1960 ile 1980 yılları arasında inşa edilen ve modernleşmenin simgesi olarak görülen apartmanların tasarım, uygulama ve kullanım aşamaları araştırılmış, modern mimarlığın kentteki uygulama koşulları ve modern apartmanların yaşadığı değişimler ve bu değişimlerin nedenleri saptanmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırma sürecinde örnekler, alanda yapılan gözlem ve tespitler ile Denizli Belediyesi İmar Müdürlüğü Arşivi'nde yapılan çalışmalar sonucu belirlenmiştir. Örneklerin analiz edilmesi ve değerlendirilmesi aşamasında kullanılan diğer yöntemler literatür çalışması, bulunan projelerin dijital ortama aktarılması ve mimarlarla yapılan kişisel görüşmelerdir. Bu kapsamda, çalışmada öncelikle modernite kavramının oluşumu ve gelişimi incelenmiş, sonrasında modern mimarlık ve konut uygulamalarının Avrupa ve Türkiye'de nasıl gerçekleştirildiği araştırılmıştır. Sonraki bölümde modernleşme süreci kırılma noktası olarak kabul edilerek Denizli kentinin mekânsal gelişimi incelenmiş, Denizli'de inşa edilen geleneksel konut ve modern konutların genel özellikleri ele alınmıştır. Alan çalışmasının yer aldığı bölümde, belirlenen apartmanlar arşiv bilgilerine göre sınıflandırılmış ve tasarım, uygulama ve kullanım süreçleri detaylı olarak analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen verilerin değerlendirildiği sonraki bölümde aktörler, mimari özellikler ve değişimler alt başlıkları ile modern bir konut sunum biçimi olan apartmanların Denizli'de nasıl uygulandığı belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Son olarak belge değerine sahip nitelikli ilk modern apartman örneklerinin kent belleği için önemi belirtilmiş ve geleceğe yönelik öneriler geliştirilmiştir.
The concept of modernity represents a separation from tradition, defines a new approach and includes an idea of a powerful change. Modernity, as a western originated concept, found an area of application in every field during the period, changed daily life and spread rapidly. During the modernization era, buildings were constructed with new materials and technology, discussions, such as standardization and industrialization, started and new building typologies emerged. Modernism found its most powerful expression in the field of housings. The aim was to define "Ideal Housing" for ordinary and modern individuals, suited for the new living conditions, enabling mass production with new materials and techniques and providing comfortable, simple and healthy living environment. Modernism, which had universal characteristics, paved way for different implementations in accordance with dynamics and specialties of place and time. The appearance of the cities changed and the traditional housing was replaced with modern apartment buildings during the modernization period in Turkey. This change is regarded as a necessity of modernization. The modernization process began to influence Anatolian cities during the second half of the 20th century as a continuation of the transition, occurring in large cities, such as Istanbul and Ankara. In Denizli, during the 1950s; the traditional garden houses, with few stories, were replaced with apartment buildings as a result of modernization, industrialization, increasing population and rapid urbanization. Apartment buildings, which required a collective type of accommodation and reflected a new life-style, have been built with new materials and techniques due to the increasing demand for housing and rapidly found an area of construction within the city. The aim of this study is to examine the modernization process taking place in the city of Denizli, to study the apartment buildings built in Denizli between 1960 and 1980, and to define the speed and direction of the local modernization and how this modernization took place. In this context, the design, implementation and stages of usage of the first apartment buildings, which are being considered as the symbols of modernization in the city, were examined and the implementation conditions of the modern architecture within the city, the changes these apartment buildings underwent as well as the reasons of these changes were determined. The configuration characteristics, spatial relationships and design criteria of the apartment buildings, subject to this study, and the local implementation of modern housing, the changes endured by these apartment buildings regarding the differing needs during usage and the actors affecting these processes were researched. The examples of the research process were determined by field observations and evaluations as well as archive researches. The other methods used during the analysis and evaluation of the examples were literature review, transfer of the found projects to digital media and personal meetings with architects. The districts in which the initial apartment buildings of the modern period appear were defined in accordance to the literature review as well as the characteristics of these apartment buildings. As a result of the research on the historical urban development of Denizli, the locations of the first apartment buildings built in this city were found to be the districts of Sırakapılar, Saraylar, Atalar, 15 Mayıs, Topraklık and Altıntop. In those areas, many apartment buildings which could be used for research data were found as a result of the analysis and photographing. The block and parcel numbers of the examples specified during the field study were obtained from the municipality and research was conducted at the development directorate of the municipality of Denizli in order to obtain the original projects of these buildings. The 90 apartment building projects, which could be identified on the field and have properties which might contribute to the research, were chosen for detailed evaluation. The map sections of the examples which were obtained and used for the study were kept as blueprints, and they have been transferred to the digital medium in order to create a more comprehensible source document. In this context, both original and renovated floor plans, façades, building surveys, floor additions and etc. of the buildings were re-drawn using computer programs. Therefore, the project drawings added in the appendix with 1/200 scale, have value as a document since they include the scaled plans and the appearances of the structures. The other source of data used during this research was in-person interviews. In order to determine the design criteria, to obtain detailed information regarding the design and production process and to understand the changes performed during the construction process together with their reasons, interviews were conducted with the architects of the projects identified from the data included in the archives. In the light of the obtained information, the first chapter explains the purpose, extent and methodology of the study. The second chapter contains the concepts which form the base of the study. This part discusses the concepts of modernity, modernism, modernization as well as a short examination of the historical progression and the changes of these concepts and proceeds with the investigation of modern architecture and housing processes. Examples of modern housing in Europe, where modernism emerged in the first place; as well as manifestations contributing to modern architecture, and the reasons for the emergence of modern housing are investigated. The Modern Architecture and Housing Process in Turkey, the First National Architecture period, the Modern Architecture period, the Second National Architecture period and the international Modern Architecture period are presented in four subheadings. In the third chapter, the spatial development of the city of Denizli are described. In this chapter, the changes and transformations of the city, beginning from the first settlement period included in the pre-modernization era; as well as the properties of the produced traditional housings, are defined in a historical perspective. The changes in the city caused by the new economic, social and political effects emerging in the modernization era; the reasons for the production of modern housing, and the first modern housing examples built in the city, were examined. In the fourth chapter, the examples determined during the field study and archive research are analyzed in detail. The determination of the general properties of the structures, the schematics and design of the facades was followed by the analysis of the endured changes during the construction and use, in order to provide insight regarding the local implementation of modern housing. The examples were categorized as follows: apartment buildings with original schematics in the archive, apartment buildings where only the renovated schematics could be obtained, and apartment buildings that were demolished. Modern architecture has had the opportunity to be applied globally with its universal nature. Still, because of the unique characteristics of each location, differences can be observed in the implementations. In the fifth chapter where the obtained data of the examples are interpreted and evaluated, a classification is made in order to provide insight on how modern housing was applied in Denizli. Therefore, the factors which influenced the production of the example apartment buildings are defined, the architectural properties of the apartment buildings are evaluated and the changes which were performed during construction and use are identified in this chapter. The final chapter of the thesis includes a general evaluation of the conducted research together with the presentation of the results as well as proposals which were developed for the future.