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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü

1980 sonrası İstanbul metropoliten kent çeperinde gelişen lüks konut alanlarının geliştirme süreçleri ve kentsel gelişmeye etkieri

Development process of luxury housing projects and their effects on İstanbul metropolitan area since 1980

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Özet:

1980 SONRASINDA İSTANBUL METROPOLİTEN KENT ÇEPERİNDE GELİŞEN LÜKS KONUT ALANLARININ GELİŞME SÜREÇLERİ VE KENTSEL GELİŞMEYE ETKİLERİ ÖZET Türkiye'de 1950'li yıllarda sanayileşme ile yaşanan hızlı kentleşme ve göç, kent çeperlerinde gecekondu alanlarının oluşmasına yol açarken; 1980'li yılların ikinci yansından itibaren yeni bir dönem başlamıştır. Bu dönemde, sermaye piyasalarının oluşumu, serbest ticaret ve üretim bölgelerinin kurulması ve bankacılıktaki gelişmeler Türkiye'nin kentleşme yapısında da değişime neden olmuştur. Diğer bir deyişle; tüm dünyada yaşanan küreselleşme süreci, Türkiye'yi ve ülkenin en büyük kenti olan İstanbul'u ekonomik, sosyal ve mekansal açıdan etkilemiştir. Özellikle İstanbul'da bazı alanlar bankacılık ve finans hizmetlerinin yer aldığı prestij alanlarına dönüşürken; ekonomik politikalarla büyüyen üst gelir grubuna hitap eden konut projeleri de hızla artmaya başlamıştır. Yeni ekonomik ve sosyal hayatın mekansal yansımalarından biri olan güvenlik sistemli ve kent yaşamından uzak lüks konut alanları; kendi içlerinde planlı olmakla beraber, kent bütününde ele alındığında; gelişmenin öngörülmediği kentin kuzey bölgesinde doğal kaynaklan tehdit ederek plansız gelişmeye neden olmaktadır. 1980 sonrasının yeni yaşam tarzım oluşturan bu lüks konut projelerinin; yer seçim kriterleri, plan ve gelişme süreçleri ve kent çeperlerindeki gelişim üzerindeki etkileri tezin konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Tezin amacı, İstanbul metropoliten kent çeperinde geleşen lüks konut alanlarınınn genel özellikleri ile birlikte yer seçim kararlarını ve gelişme süreçlerini inceleyerek bulunduklan bölgede yarattıklan değişimi ortaya koymaktır. Metropoliten kent çeperinde, altyapı ve ulaşım olanaklarım geliştirerek bu alandaki gelişmeyi yönlendiren projelerin yerel yönetim ve merkezi idare ile ilişkileri, çevredeki arazi kullanımı ve arazi değerlerine etkileri de tezin inceleme konulan arasında yer almaktadır. Bu bilgilere ulaşmak için kent çeperlerindeki belde belediyelerinin nüfus gelişimi incelenmiş ve lüks konut projelerinin yapımcı firmalarıyla ve firmaların pazarlama ve satış bölümleri ile anket-mülakatlar yapılmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak; metropoliten kent çeperinde gelişen lüks konut alanlarının;. Yer seçimi ve gelişimi, arazi kullanımı ve ulaşım ilişkilerinden etkilenirken aynı zamanda arazi kullanımı ve ulaşım kararlannı da yönlendirdiği,. Hem yatınmcı hem de kullanıcının tercihi ile yeni konut projeleri için çekim unsuru oluşturduğu,. Projelerin geliştiği alanlann, belde belediyesi olarak Büyükşehir belediyesinden ayrılmasının yatırm sürecini hızlandırdığı ve. Lüks konut alanlarının yakın çevrelerinde arazi değerlerini arttırdığı ortaya konmuştur. vuı

Summary:

DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF LUXURY HOUSING PROJECTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA SINCE 1980 SUMMARY By the end of late 50's, increasing of urban growth and migration caused by industrilization, became the major effect on the appearance of squatter settlements in and around urban areas. Development of capital movements, free trade and production zones and the improvement of banking opened up a new period towards the end of 1980s, that caused a critical change in urban growth process in Turkey. In other words, globalization had a significant effect on social, economical and spatial changes in Istanbul as the largest city of Turkey. Development of sectors such as banking and financial services formed a series of prestigious areas and luxury housing projects in Istanbul. These luxury housing projects mostly developed towards the north where the natural resources of Istanbul Metropolitan Area are located. However, they are planned as individual projects with their own security systems, modern comfortable components, they developed without connection to the metropolitan master plan. Luxury housing areas and their general characteristics, locational preferences, planning process and their effects on the development of urban land use are the main themes of this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to examine locational preferences and planning process of luxury housing areas and prove their effects on the transformation of urban periphery and land use. Their effects on the land values, land use, transportation, infrastructure and their relations to the local and central administrative units are also the examined through thesis. While the appereance of the new municipalities, growth and change of population are analyzed in Istanbul metropoliten area, interviews were conducted with the construction firms and their sale offices in order to test the hypotheses. Istanbul with its special importance and strategic location, has been effected by the political and technological trends of the world. Sometimes, these effects on urban development were defined and guided by administrative units but mostly extended spontaneously. The planning approach of Turkish Republic started to differ by 1950s and by 1980s it had changed entirely. This change was reflected on urban space as growing without a spatial plan. Economic dynamics and politics are the main indicators on urban transformation. Between 1980 and 1990, Istanbul changed rapidly in terms of urban identity, due to changes in technology and the globalization process. Geographical position, regional trade and transportation abilities have simulated its transformation as major factors. Instead of improvement on public transportation systems, increasing investments on car ownership, construction of secon Bosphorus Bridge IXand multi line motorways, accelerated this process. Office buildings converted the CBD into prestigious areas and symbolized the power of capital. One of the significant effects of this process appeared in housing areas. While the traditional city centres was loosing its importance, new housing areas located in the north belt of metroplitan area, became the major preference for high income groups. Luxury housing projects mostly developed in the north belt of metropolitan area where none of master plans foreseen to be developed. Most of these projects have been reformed by the help of individual laws such as for Forestry and Tourism, without depending on a master plan of metropolitan area. Luxury housing projects developed especially in the municipalities which have some privileges and independency from metropolitan authority and plan. Moreover, these new municipalities include forests or water reservoirs of the metropolitan area. Land use in these areas affected on development of luxury housing, while development of luxury housing affected on infrastructure and transportation plans. Land values and infrastructural development are mostly affected by rapid growth of luxury housing in these areas. Towns such as Zekeriyaköy, Ömerli, Çekmeköy, Hadımköy, Durusu, Kemerburgaz and Göktürk in the north belt of Istanbul have indicated population growth and structural change. After new services and production units developed in these little towns, they became important points of attraction. After the 1999 earthquake in Marmara, housing demand increased toward north belt which has a relatively stronger geological setting. For the purpose of the thesis, two sample cases are selected in both European and Asian parts of Istanbul. Kemer Country and Acarkent also changed the social and physical environment as luxury housing projects. Kemer Country, covering 3200 acres and 1750 houses and Acarkent, covering 2300 acres and 1452 houses, transformed districts of Göktürk and Beykoz into a centre of luxury housing. Findings of this thesis indicate as followings;. Development of luxury housing affected by land use and infrastructure in the metropolitan area, vice versa,. Existing luxury housing projects became attraction points for new projects,. Independency of new municipalities has caused to increase the speed of investment process on luxury housing,. Luxuruy housing projects have caused an increase in the land value of their neigbourhood, These results are required to control the development of luxury housing areas. It would be possible to control the urban development by leading the trend which is mentioned above. Metropolitan Plans which approved in 1994 and 1996, proposed these areas as conservation areas, while luxury housing projects were locating in the north belt. In order to control and lead the development of luxury housing projects;. Investors must be guided and projects must be formed to cooperate municipal units with investors to develop new housing areas.. The revision of traditional city center and other valuable zone in the metropolitan area would make this areas alive and attractive for investors.. Individually planned areas around or inside the city, (by the previliges of central goverment units such as Ministry of Forestry or Ministry of Tourism) must be prevented. It has to be a unity of metropolitan master plan and it has to monitor by an aplicable metropolitan plan and metropolitan authority. XI