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Galatasaray Üniversitesi / Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü / Kamu Hukuku Anabilim Dalı

1982 Anayasası'na göre kanun hükmünde kararnameler ve yargısal denetimi

The decrees having the force of law and their judicial review in accordance with The Turkish Constitution of 1982

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Özet:

Bu çalışmanın konusunu, 1982 Anayasası ekseninde kanun hükmünde kararnameler ve yargısal denetimi oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın birinci bölümünde hukuki bir kavram ve işlem olarak kanun hükmünde kararname kurumu ile bu kurumun hukukumuza girişi incelenmiştir. İkinci bölüm, 1982 Anayasası döneminde getirilen kanun hükmünde kararname düzenlemelerine ayrılmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde ise kanun hükmünde kararnamelerin yargısal denetimi incelenmiştir. 1961 Anayasası'nda değişiklik yapan 20 Eylül 1971 tarih ve 1488 sayılı Kanun ile Türk hukukunda ilk kez düzenlenen kanun hükmünde kararname (KHK) kurumu, bazı değişiklerle 1982 Anayasası'nda da yer almış ve düzenlendiği günden bugüne dek birçok açıdan tartışma konusu olmuştur. Belirtmek gerekir ki 1961 Anayasası döneminde kanun hükmünde kararname kurumu, çok etkin bir uygulama alanı bulabilmiş değildir. Nitekim 1971-1980 yılı aralığında yayımlanan kanun hükmünde kararname sayısı yalnızca 34'tür. 1982 Anayasası döneminde ise bu kurum, bazı dönemlerde çok etkin bir uygulama alanı bulmuşsa da diğer bazı dönemlerde ise bu etkinliğini oldukça yitirmiştir. Nitekim 1980-2001 yılı aralığında yayımlanan kanun hükmünde kararname sayısı 488'i bulurken; 2002-2010 yılı aralığında tek bir kanun hükmünde kararname bile çıkarılmamıştır. 4 Temmuz 2001 tarih ve 631 sayılı KHK'nın çıkarılmasından bu yana uzun süre kullanılmamış olan bu kurum, 6 Nisan 2011 tarih ve 6223 sayılı Yetki Kanunu ile tekrar gündeme gelmiş ve 2011 yılında yayımlanan kanun hükmünde kararnameler ile birlikte yeniden etkinlik kazanarak, farklı tartışmalara neden olmuştur.xiii Olağan dönemlerde çıkarılan kanun hükmünde kararnamelerin öncelikle bir yetki kanununa dayanması zorunludur. Dolayısıyla bu bölümde öncelikle yetki kanunu incelenmiş ve buna ilişkin olarak kanun hükmünde kararname çıkarma yetkisi verilmesinin hukuki niteliği ile yetki kanununun unsurları ele alınmıştır. Kanun hükmünde kararname çıkarma yetkisi verilmesi ise genel olarak Anayasa'nın 87'nci maddesinde, özel olarak Anayasa'nın 91'inci maddesinde düzenlenmiştir. Dolayısıyla yetki kanununun unsurları ile bu unsurların niteliği, bu maddeler arasındaki genel hüküm-özel hüküm ilişkisi göz önünde tutularak tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Yetki kanununa ilişkin hususların ardından, yetki kanununa dayanılarak çıkarılması gereken kanun hükmünde kararnameler incelenmiştir. Burada öncelikle kanun hükmünde kararnamelerin konusu, diğer bir deyiş ile kanun hükmünde kararnameler ile düzenlenebilecek alanlar belirlenmiştir. Nitekim Anayasa'nın 91 ve 163'üncü maddeleri, kanun hükmünde kararnameler ile düzenlenebilecek alanlar açısından bazı sınırlamalar getirmiştir. Bununla birlikte Anayasa'nın birçok hükmünde

Summary:

The subject of this study is the decrees having the force of law and their judicial review in accordance with the Turkish Constitution of 1982. In the first chapter of this study, the decree having the force of law and its introduction to the judicial system of Turkey is examined as a legal institution and an act. The second chapter of this study is the part of the regulations of the decrees having the force of law in the era of the Constitution of 1982. In the third chapter, the judicial review of the decrees is finally analyzed. The institution of the decree having the force of law regulated by the Constitution of 1961 (as amended on October 20, 1971: 1488), is replaced with some amendments by the Constitution of 1982 and it has become a matter of debate in many aspects up to the present. However, this institution could not be put into practice effectively in the era of the Constitution of 1961. As a matter of fact, the number of the decrees issued between the years of 1971 and 1980 is just 34. As to the era of the Constitution of 1982, this institution put into practice effectively in some periods, whereas it lost its effect in other periods neither. The number of the decrees issued between the years of 1980 and 2001 reached up to 488, unlike not a single decree issued between the years of 2002 and 2010. Actually, this institution which had not been used since the Decree issued on 4th July, 2001, came to the fore by means of the (Empowering) Law No 6223 dated on 6 April, 2011 and this initiated new discussions on the decrees having the force of law. In the first chapter of this study, the institution of the decree having the force of law is examined in general. In this chapter, the decree having the force of law is examined not only in the light of the conceptual and executional approach but also in the light of historical approach. The concept of the decree having the force of law is xxiv In the third chapter, the judicial review of the decrees having the force of law is examined. This chapter consists of two main topics in a similar way with the second chapter as "the judicial review of the decrees having the force of law issued during" and "the judicial review of the decrees having the force of law issued during states of emergency". It is aimed to determine the jurisprudence and the tendency of the Constitutional Court in general by the judicial review of the decrees having the force of law. Under the heading of "the judicial review of the decrees having the force of law issued during normalcy", the organ of judicial review, the way of judicial review and the steps of judicial review are clarified. Accordingly, the decrees having the force of law issued during normalcy can be reviewed by the Constitutional Court. The Constitutional Court have been examining the constitutionality, in respect of both form and substance, of the decrees having the force of law. The judicial review of the decrees having the force of law is comprised of not only three-aspects but also two-stage. The first stage of the judicial review is to examine whether the provisions of the decrees having the force of law alleged unconstitutionality are in conformity with the empowering law based on. The second stage of the judicial review is to examine the constitutionality of these provisions. As far as the aspects of the judicial review is concerned, it is comprised of the constitutionality of the empowering law based on, the conformity of the decrees having the force of law to the empowering law based on and the constitutionality of these decrees. The judicial review of the conformity of the decrees to the empowering law based on can be varied by the constitutionality or unconstitutionality of the empowering law. According to the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, the unconstitutionality of the empowering law comes to mean that the decrees having the force of law have no constitutional foundation. Consequently, at the stage of the conformity to the empowering law, the constitutionality of the empowering law is illuminated primarily. The elements of the empowering law and the significance, necessity, urgency jurisprudence as to the conditions of the authorization to enact the decrees with change of this jurisprudence are examined. Furthermore, the impact of xxv the unconstitutionality of empowering law on the validity of the decrees having the force of law is evaluated. Afterwards, the conformity of the decrees to the empowering law which is not unconstitutional is discussed. Finally, the decrees of having the force of law are examined from the point of the judicial review of constitutionality and it is tried to determine the scope of this review in respect of both form and substance. The decrees having the force of law issued during states of emergency, unlike the decrees having the force of law issued during normalcy, shall not be examined by the Constitutional Court in principle. In accordance with the article 148 of the Constitution, no action shall be brought before the Constitutional Court alleging unconstitutionality as to the form or substance of decrees having the force of law issued during a state of emergency, martial law or in time of war. Notwithstanding the article 148 of the Constitution, the Constitutional Court has declared that the Court determines itself the legal nature of the text alleged unconstitutionality and the Court cannot be tied to the name of this text given by the legislative or executive organs. For this reason, the Constitutional Court has reviewed the decrees having the force of law issued during states of emergency, which are alleged unconstitutionality in respect of whether they have the legal characteristic of the decrees having the force of law issued during states of emergency or not. As a result of this review, the Constitutional Court has declared that some of the provisions of these decrees have not the legal characteristic of the decrees having the force of law issued during states of emergency. Finally, under this heading, this jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court is discussed. In the conclusion section, the study comes to an end by evaluating the findings discovered. In this section, some solutions to the problems relating to the decrees having the force of law are offered and the changes of the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court are evaluated with the effect of these changes to the decrees having the force of law. Finally, all the decrees having the force of law and all the empowering laws issued up to the present are submitted for the readers by the decrees having the force of law table and the empowering laws table in the appendix section