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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / İnşaat Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı / Yapı Mühendisliği Bilim Dalı

20 katlı betonarme bir yapının Türkiye Bina Deprem Yönetmeliği'ne göre tasarımı ve deprem performansının belirlenmesi

Design of 20 storey reinforced concrete building according to Turkish seismic code and determine of seismic performance

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Özet:

Bu tez çalışması kapsamında taşıyıcı sistemi perde ve çerçevelerden oluşan 20 katlı betonarme bir yapının TBDY 2018'de belirtilen Dayanıma Göre Tasarım yaklaşımı ve TS500'de belirtilen kriterler ışığında tasarımı yapılmış ve zaman tanım alanında doğrusal olmayan analiz ile yapının davranışı incelenerek deprem performansı belirlenmiştir. Tez çalışması altı ana bölümden oluşmakta olup giriş bölümü olarak nitelendirilen birinci bölümde çalışmanın konusuna, amacına ve kapsamına değinilmiştir. İkinci bölümde TBDY 2018'de belirtilen Dayanıma Göre Tasarım yaklaşımının ayrıntıları verilmiş olup süneklik, dayanım, rijitlik ve kapasite tasarım ilkeleri gibi yapı ve deprem mühendisliğinin önemli kavramları açıklanmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde TBDY 2018'de belirtilen Şekildeğiştirmeye Göre Değerlendirme ve Tasarım yaklaşımı çerçevesinde doğrusal olmayan davranış açıklanmıştır. Aynı bölümde plastik mafsal hipotezinin tanımlanması yapılmış olup yayılı ve yığılı plastik mafsal modelleri belirtilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, 20 katlı betonarme yapının TBDY 2018 DGT yaklaşımı ile TS500 kuralları da gözetilerek tasarımı ayrıntılı olarak yapılmış ve taşıyıcı sistemin elemanlarının boyutlandırılması örnekler üzerinden açıklanmıştır. Tasarım sırasında ETABS programı kullanılmıştır. Beşinci bölümde, dördüncü bölümde tasarımı yapılan yapının deprem performansı belirlenmiştir. Deprem performansının belirlenmesinde zaman tanım alanında doğrusal olmayan analiz kullanılmıştır. Analizler için gerekli deprem kayıtlarının elde edilişleri ve elde edilen kayıtların ölçeklenmeleri belirtilmiştir. Doğrusal olmayan analizlerde 11 adet deprem kaydı kullanılmıştır. TBDY 2018'de belirtildiği üzere her kaydın birbirine dik doğrultulardaki iki yatay ivme kayıtlarının eksenleri 90o döndürülmüş ve analizler tekrarlanmış olup toplam 22 analiz yapılmıştır. Kolon ve kirişlerde yığılı plastik mafsal modelleri kullanılırken, perdelerde yayılı plastik mafsal modeli kullanılmıştır. Perdelerde yayılı plastik davranış modeli sargılı ve sargısız beton özellikleri dikkate alınarak kesit hücresi (lif) modeli ile idealleştirilmiştir. Altıncı bölümde ise tez çalışmasında ulaşılan sonuçlar elde edilmiş ve sunulmuştur.

Summary:

In this thesis, 20-storey reinforced concrete structure is designed in accordance with Turkish Seismic Code 2018 and the seismic performance evaluation is performed. This study consists of six main chapters. In the first chapter, which is described as introduction, scope and purpose of this study are defined, in addition, eventuated earthquakes in Turkey are investigated. Many earthquakes occured in our country in the last seventy two years. In 1992 Erzincan and in 1999 Kocaeli are the most damaging earthquakes recorded since they caused maximal casualties in Turkey. The summary table for important eventuated earthquakes in Turkey is presented in this section. The fundamental philosophy of structural engineering and earthquake engineering is realization of earthquake resistant structural design. As a consequence of this philosophy, modern seismic codes are published for especially countries located on seismic belt. Recently effectuated seismic code in our country is Turkish Seismic Code 2018. The first seismic code in Turkey, which is published in 1949,is Ordinance of Structure Design. This ordinance shows similarity to Italian Seismic Code. From past to present, seismic codes used in our country are presented in the first section. The second chapter of this study is devoted to details of Force – Based Design approach indicated in TSC 2018. Elastic earthquake forces to be acted on the structure are determined by the use of a response spectrum and reduced by a coefficient which is defined as response modification coefficient. This coefficient varies depending on two parameters and these are the type and foreseen ductility of structural system. Linear analyses of structure under the reduced earthquke forces are completed and the internal forces occured on the elements of structural system and also the internal forces are combined with dead and live loads. Acquired strength demands and strength capacities of elements are compared. Another obligation in Force – Based Design approach is the displacement checks of structure. Displacements under the earthquake forces must be smaller than the limit values. In additon, important issues of structural and earthquake engineering such as ductility, strength, capacity design principle and stiffness are summarized in this chapter. The strong column – weak beam rule is explained as per capacity design principle. The overstrength factor is defined in detail. In the third chapter of this study, detailed informations about nonlinear behaviour of structures are given pursuant to Performance – Based Design approach indicated in TSC 2018. The definition of plastic hinge hypothesis is presented and both lumped plastic hinge behaviour and distributed plastic hinge behaviour are explained in detail. Several formulas recommended by many researchers with the formula specified as one-half of section height in Turkish Seismic Code 2018, which are used in calculation of the plastic hinge length are demonstrated in this chapter. Reinforced concrete and rebar elements are idealized as fiber elements in distributed plastic hinge behaviour model. Generally, distributed plastic hinge behaviour model is used for shear wall elements and confined or unconfined concrete properties are taken into consideration in fiber elements. In addition to above-cited plastic hinge behaviour model, lumped plastic hinge behaviour model is used for beams and column elements. The fourth chapter of this study gives the design of 20-storey reinforced concrete building according to Turkish Seismic Code 2018. Furthermore, one of each beams, columns and shear walls in the structure are designed on numerical examples. The location of structure is considered in Ataşehir District of İstanbul Province and the geographical coordinates of structure are 40.991377 N and 29.124174 E. The site class of Ataşehir District is accepted ZC. The importance factor is taken as 1.0 because of type of structure. The structure reveals behaviour of combination of special reinforced concrete moment frame and special reinforced concrete shear wall system in X direction. Furthermore, the structure is revealed behaviour of combination of special reinforced concrete moment frame and special reinforced concrete coupling beam shear wall system in Y direction. Because of this reason, the different response modification coefficient is used in linear design steps. Since Equivalent Lateral Force Method is not available the structure having height class of two, The Mode Superposition Method is used in earthquake analysis. Considering the nonlinear behaviour of concrete and rebar, the effective stiffness coefficients are implemented for beams, columns, coupling beams and shear walls in accordance with Turkish Seismic Code 2018. Axial load – biaxial bending moment interaction diagrams of columns and shear walls are constituted in MATLAB computer software. The internal forces obtained load combinations of columns and shear walls are marked on interaction diagrams and compared. Story drift, second order effects and beam – column joints shear are examined. In the linear design procedure, detailed informations are presented about coupling beam and shear wall system. The structure is modelled in ETABS computer software. The fifth chapter is devoted to seismic evaluation of the reinforced concrete building based on nonlinear direct integration analysis. The effective stiffnesses are used for beams, columns and shear walls in accordance with Turkish Seismic Code 2018. The moment – curvature analyses are used for determination of effective stiffnesses at beams and columns. Lumped plastic hinge properties are defined on all beams and columns while on shear walls, distributed plastic hinge properties are defined. Columns axial load – biaxial bending moment interaction diagrams are considered in plastic hinge behaviour of columns. The boundary areas of shear walls are divided to two fiber elements and confined and unconfined properties are considered for these fiber elements. In web section of shear walls, unconfined concrete properties are considered. Mander concrete model is taken as confine concrete behaviour in nonlinear direct integration analysis. According to Turkish Seismic Code 2018, the vertical nonlinear static analysis of provided before the nonlinear direct integration analysis and this analysis is assumed as inital condition of time history analysis. Eleven ground motion sets are used during the analyses. The principal axis of earthquake records are rotated 90o and totaly 22 nonlinear direct integration analyses are performed. These earthquake records are scaled in time domain between 0.2T and 1.5T periods and the reasons of scaling are explained in detail. The ground motion records of each earthquake events is obtained from The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. The response spectrum curves are calculated using Seismomatch Computer Software and the result spectrum is obtained which is calculated using square root of the sum of the squares method using response spectrum curves of earthqauke records. This resultant spectrum is magnified with a scale factor. The average of all scaled response spectrum acceleration values is bigger than 1.3 times the acceleration values of response spectrum. The Rayleigh damping method is considered as structural damping and 5% damping ratio is implemented at 0.2T and 1.5T periods as per Turkish Seismic Code 2018. The Newmark integration method is performed as numerical integration method. γ and β are equal to 0.50 and 0.25, respectively as per average acceleration method. Numerical examples are presented in order to determine damage quantities for columns, beams and shear walls. The damaged elements of structure are shown after the analyses. The damage limits are examined as life safety, immediate occupancy and collapse prevention performance levels and calculated for all beams, columns and shear walls. In final chapter, analyses conclusions of this study are presented and interpreted. Also, the seismic performance is determined in this chapter.