Tez Arşivi

Tez aramanızı kolaylaştıracak arama motoru. Yazar, danışman, başlık ve özetlere göre tezleri arayabilirsiniz.


İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / İnşaat Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı / Yapı İşletmesi Bilim Dalı

2017

4D/5D modelleme araçlarının performanslarının değerlendirilmesi

Evaluation of the performance of 4D/5D modelling software

Bu tez, YÖK tez merkezinde bulunmaktadır. Teze erişmek için tıklayın. Eğer tez bulunamazsa, YÖK Tez Merkezi'ndeki tarama bölümünde tez numarasını arayabilirsiniz. Tez numarası: 485312

Tezi Bul
Özet:

Birçok farklı disiplinden katılımcının bir arada çalıştığı inşaat sektöründe, disiplinler arası koordinasyon ve bilgi paylaşımı oldukça önemlidir. Disiplinler arası koordinasyon ve bilgi paylaşımı konusunda son yıllarda ortaya çıkan ve hızla yaygınlaşan kavramlardan biri de Yapı Bilgi Modellemesi (BIM) olmuştur. Bir yapı ile ilgili her türlü bilginin oluşturulan sanal model üzerinde saklandığı ve güncellendiği bir süreci ifade eden BIM, tüm paydaşların yaşam döngüsü boyunca proje ile ilgili bilgileri dijital ortamda oluşturabileceği ve bu bilgileri birbirleri arasında paylaşabileceği yenilikçi bir proje yönetim sistemidir. Geleneksel iş programı yazılımlarının gelişmekte olan inşaat sektöründeki bazı beklentileri karşılayamaması, sektörü farklı arayışlara yöneltmiştir. BIM kullanımıyla yapıları görselleştirmek için geliştirilen 3D model, bina elemanlarının dijital ortamda üç boyutlu olarak temsil edilmesiyle oluşturulmaktadır. Oluşturulan 3D modele zaman kavramının entegrasyonu sonucunda, 4D model olarak ifade edilen yapının zamana bağlı simülasyonu elde edilmektedir. 5D modelleme ise, 4D modele maliyetin entegrasyonu sonucunda oluşturulmaktadır. Bu sayede, 3D modelin süre ve maliyet ile doğrudan bağlantısı sağlanmakta, modelde yapılabilecek herhangi bir değişikliğin, manuel bir işleme gerek kalmadan, otomatik olarak süre ve maliyeti güncellemesinin önü açılmış olmaktadır. Veriyi bir bilgi modeline bağlamanın belirli bir yolunu ifade eden 5D, model tabanlı maliyet tahmin yöntemidir. Yapılan literatür araştırmaları neticesinde 4D/5D modelleme konusunda yapılan çalışmaların, 4D/5D modelleme unsurlarının genel özellikleri üzerinde yoğunlaştığı gözlemlenmiştir. Özellikle 5D modellemesinin tanımında belirsizlikler ve eksiklikler olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı ise, 5D modellemesinin ne olduğunun etraflıca tanımlanması ve 4D/5D modelleme yazılımlarının kapasitelerinin değerlendirilmesidir. Bu kapsamda, 4D/5D hazırlanırken hangi aşamalardan geçileceği, bu aşamaların ortalama olarak hangi sürelerde tamamlanacağı, hangi yazılımdan ne tür faydalar elde edebileceği ve bu esnada ne tür zorluklar ile karşılaşabileceği konusunda bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, seçilen bir projenin Revit programında 3D modeli oluşturulmuş ve 4D/5D modelleme konusunda önde gelen üç paket program olan Navisworks, Synchro ve Vico yazılımları kullanılarak yapıya ait 4D/5D modeller geliştirilmiştir. Yapının; (1) bodrum ve mağaza katları kaba inşaatı, (2) tüm katların kaba inşaatı ve (3) kaba inşaat ile ince imalatlarını kapsayan üç farklı modeli oluşturulmuştur. Oluşturulan üç farklı 3D modelin 4D/5D modellemeleri bu üç yazılım kullanılarak ayrı ayrı geliştirilmiş ve yazılımlar karşılaştırılmıştır. Yapılan çalışma sonucunda; Navisworks, Synchro ve Vico yazılımlarının 4D modellemeyi başarı ile gerçekleştirebildiği fakat 5D modellemenin tam anlamıyla sadece Vico yazılımı kullanılarak oluşturulabildiği belirlenmiştir. Synchro ve Navisworks yazılımları maliyet verileri içermelerine rağmen, maliyet ve 3D model bağlantısını doğrudan sağlayamadıkları için 5D modelleme yapamamaktadırlar. Sadece Vico yazılımında 3D model, süre ve maliyet bağlantısı doğrudan sağlandığı için, modelde yapılan bir değişik ile otomatik olarak süre ve maliyetin revize edilebildiği tespit edilmiştir. Çalışma sonuçlarına göre, 4D/5D modelleme için tercih edilen her bir yazılım farklı özellikleri ile ön plana çıkmaktadır. Navisworks çakışma algısı ile diğer yazılımların önüne geçerken; Synchro'nun iş programında sunduğu esneklik, Vico'nun ise maliyet verileriyle ilgili raporlamaları göze çarpmaktadır. 4D modelleme adımları dikkate alındığında en fazla sürenin iş programı ve 3D model bağlantısında, 5D modellemede ise maliyet verilerinin girilmesi aşamasında harcandığı tespit edilmiştir. Programların öğrenim zorluğu, içe-dışa aktarımda karşılaşılan bazı problemler, iş programı ve maliyet ile ilgili 4D/5D yazılımlarındaki bazı kısıtlamalar ise modelleme esnasında karşılaşılan bazı sorunlardır. Bu çalışman sonuçlarının, 4D/5D modelleme yapacak olan firmaların ilgili yazılımı seçmesinde ve özellikle 5D modellemesinin doğru bir şekilde tanımlanmasında katkı sağlaması beklenmektedir.

Summary:

Construction project management, which is a professional management process, is the whole set of procedures for time, cost and quality control, from the first idea to the physical delivery of the building to the owner. Construction project management; is a process applied to reach desired qualities and determined targets within a certain time and budget. For each project, it is necessary to plan and control the project management in its own way, where a start and end time are specified, different or similar resources are used. In the construction industry (AEC industry), where many project participants from different disciplines work together, the importance of interdisciplinary coordination and information sharing is undeniable. One of the rapidly emerging concepts of interdisciplinary coordination and information sharing in recent years has been Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM, denoting a process in which all information about a structure is stored and updated on the created virtual model, is an innovative project management system that allows all stakeholders to create information related to the project throughout the life cycle and share this information with each other in digital platform. The benefits of BIM, which emerged in interdisciplinary coordination and information sharing in recent years, are rather overwhelming. In order for companies to be able to adapt to BIM, which is a concept that can be counted as a new concept, it is necessary to spend a certain amount of time and to have a culture change life. This cultural exchange is possible not by having a single person's knowledge of BIM but by gathering all personnel around the concept as a company. Therefore, transition to BIM has some difficulties in its own right. In recent years, BIM has become an indispensable element for the AEC industry, which is rapidly spreading in many countries such as America, Scandinavian countries and Singapore. The concept of BIM's logic and the companies that implement it correctly have serious benefits. Countries or firms wishing to switch to BIM technology should know that there are some problems that need to be solved in this transition process. Since several people working in companies have knowledge about this subject, it is necessary for all company employees to adapt to this cultural change. However, this way the BIM can be applied correctly and the desired efficiency can be obtained. Because BIM is not as short a process as a few people can overcome. Developed to overcome the complexities of construction projects, BIM enables projects to be effectively managed with a range of digital tools. Some software is needed to be solved in the virtual environment before the construction of the build is started. Every software that is to be used is responsible for completing a different phase of the BIM process. BIM allows many software to be used in modeling, releasing users at software selection point. Firmware or modelers are in a position to decide which software they will use according to their needs. Companies or designers must have decided what to expect and not expect from the model before choosing the software they will use, especially in the 4D / 5D modeling. The failure of traditional schedule softwares to meet some of the expectations of developing construction sector has led the sector to seek different directions. The 3D model developed for the visualization of buildings using BIM is created by three-dimensionally representing the building elements in the digital environment. As an outcome of the integration of the generated 3D model and time concept, time-dependent animation of the structure expressed as 4D model is obtained. The 5D modeling, on the other hand, is formed as a result of the integration of the 4D modeling and the cost. In this way, the 3D model is directly linked to the time and cost, and this allows the updates of duration and cost to be done automatically without the need for manual processing in case of any changes that can be made to the model. 5D is a model based cost estimation method which expresses a particular way of linking a data model to an information model. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly define what the 5D model is and to evaluate the capacities of 4D / 5D modeling software. In this context, an assessment is made as to which stages to take when preparing the 4D / 5D, on what periods these stages will be completed on average, what benefits can be gained from which software and what kind of difficulties it may encounter. Study; It is aimed that firms or stakeholders in the transition phase of BIM culture should go out with the correct software in the direction of the above mentioned information and spend less time at the modeling stage. The 4D / 5D model created to be a guide to the modelers has been implemented on a real project that has been completed. As a result of literature researches, studies on 4D / 5D modeling have been observed to focus on general features of 4D / 5D modeling elements. It has been determined that there are ambiguities and deficiencies particularly in the definition of the 5D model. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly define what the 5D model is and to evaluate the capacities of 4D / 5D modeling software. In this context, an assessment is made as to which stages to take when preparing the 4D / 5D, on how long it will take these stages to be completed on average, what benefits can be gained from these software and what kind of difficulties might be encountered meanwhile. To fulfill this, a 3D model of a selected project was created in the Revit program and 4D / 5D models of the structure were developed using Navisworks, Synchro and Vico software, which are three leading package programs in 4D / 5D modeling. Three different models of the structure were created including (1) rough construction of basement and ground floors, (2) rough construction of all floors, and (3) rough and finishing construction works. The 4D / 5D models of the three different 3D models created were developed separately using these three software programs and the software were compared. AutoCAD drawings were used to create the 3D model. Following the creation of the 3D model, the schedule was prepared in the Primavera program. MasterFormat and the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning were entered as the source in the created schedule, and the structure cost and cost distribution were determined. The generated 3D model and schedule were continued to the 4D / 5D modeling stages by taking each of the Navisworks, Synchro and Vico software separately. The modeling steps, the time distributions of the phases and the difficulties encountered were determined for each software and some recommendations were made to the modelers. Creating the 3D model in the virtual environment, preparing the work program for the created model, getting the 3D model and the work program to the 4D / 5D modeling software and ensuring that they are linked to each other, making clash detection tests, generating the simulation of the construction and entering cost data are the stages of 4D / 5D modeling. It is known that a certain period of time is needed to complete these stages. Knowing time distributions needed for these stages in advance will help users figure out how to reduce the total time needed to model them by focusing on specific points. Before choosing the software that modelers will use in 4D / 5D modeling, it is very important to decide what they expect from this modeling. In order not to experience disappointments that might be faced in the later stages of modeling, it is important to remember that software may not be able to respond to all demands and expectations of users. As a result of the study; It has been determined that Navisworks, Synchro, and Vico software can successfully perform 4D modeling, but that only Vico software thoroughly enables the use of 5D modeling. Although Synchro and Navisworks software contain cost data, they cannot generate 5D modeling because they cannot provide cost and 3D model linking directly. Only in the Vico software, the link of the 3D model to time and cost is directly provided so it has been determined that the time and cost can be automatically revised with a variation on the model. According to the study results, each software which has been preferred for 4D / 5D modeling comes out with different features. While Navisworks leads other software with clash detection; Synchro's flexibility in the work program and Vico's reporting on cost data are noted. When 4D modeling steps are taken into consideration, it has been determined that the maximum time was spent on the linking of the schedule and the 3D model, whereas in the 5D model it was spent in the process of entering the cost data. Some problems encountered during modeling are learning difficulty of programs, some problems faced in import-export, some restrictions of 4D / 5D software related to work schedule and cost. While all these modeling steps are taken, users may encounter some difficulties. Knowing in advance the problems that may arise during the modeling process or the difficulties that may be encountered may provide advantages to modelers over time. One of the first obstacles that companies or modelers who will implement 4D / 5D modeling projects for the first time in their projects will have difficulty learning the software to be used, depending on the modeling software to be selected. When the three software used in the thesis are evaluated for ease of learning; the easiest to learn is Navisworks, the most difficult is Vico. In the initial stage of adaptation to the BIM process, it is also important to remember that the number of personnel who will be using such software in countries or companies. It is expected that these study results will contribute to the selection of specific software by the companies that will be using the 4D / 5D modeling and especially to the correct definition of the 5D modeling.