İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı / Çevre Kontrolü ve Yapı Teknoloji Bilim Dalı
AB bütünleşik ürün politikası çerçevesinde Türkiye'de yapı ürünlerine yönelik politikaların incelenmesi
Analysis of policies for construction products in Turkey under the EU integrated product policy
Yapı endüstrisi dünyada gelişmekte olan bir sektör olup, enerji tüketimi ve doğal kaynakların kullanımı açısından çevreye olumsuz etkileri oldukça fazla orandadır. Çevreye yapılan tahribatın hızla arttığı 20. yüzyılla beraber, Dünya'nın pek çok yerinde sorunların farkına varılmış ve çevreyle ilgili politikalar geliştirilmeye başlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda Avrupa Komisyonunca geliştirilmiş olan Bütünleşik Ürün Politikası (BÜP) ve AB ülkelerindeki uygulamaları dikkat çekmektedir. Ürünlerin çevresel etkilerinin yaşam döngüleri boyunca, ilgili paydaşların işbirliği ile kontrolü ve azaltılmasını amaçlayan bu politika kapsamında, özellikle yapı malzeme ve ürünlerinin çevreye olan etkilerinin azaltılması yönündeki uygulamalar irdelenmiştir. BÜP'ün amacına ulaşması için uygulandığı her ülkede ekonomik, çevresel ve sosyal önceliklere göre şekillenen araçlar kullanılmaktadır. Bu tez çalışması; yapı malzemeleri sektöründen kaynaklanan çevresel etkilerin önemli bir paya sahip olduğu düşüncesiyle ortaya çıkmış olup, Türkiye'de yapı malzemeleri sektörünün meydana getirdiği çevresel etkilerin kontrolü ve azaltılmasında benimsenmiş ilke ve araçların, Avrupa Birliği Bütünleşik Ürün Politikası çerçevesinde ortaya konması ve değerlendirilmesi ile oluşturulmuştur. Buna göre; birinci bölümde çalışmanın amacı tanımlanmış, bu doğrultuda kapsam ve kullanılan yöntem ortaya konmuştur. İkinci bölümde; Avrupa Birliği Bütünleşik Ürün Politikası incelenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda; politikanın hedefi, gelişimi ve özelliklerine değinilmiş, politikanın kullandığı araçlar ve bunların oluşumuna girdi veren yaklaşımlar irdelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde; seçilen 5 AB üyesi ülkedeki Bütünleşik Ürün Politikası uygulamaları ortaya konmuştur. Dördüncü bölümde; BÜP çerçevesinde Türkiye yapı malzemeleri/ürünleri sektörünü şekillendiren araçlar, çalışma kapsamında BM ve OECD gibi uluslararası kurumlarca belirlenmiş araç tipleri esas alınarak irdelenmiştir. Devamında ülkemizde yapı ürünleri özelinde geliştirilmesi gereken araçlara değinilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuç bölümünde ise; yapılan çalışmalardan çıkan sonuçlar değerlendirilerek, Türkiye'de yapı ürünlerinin çevresel etkilerinin BÜP araçları kapsamında kontrolü, azaltılması ve ürün beyanlarının kullanımında başarı sağlanması için kullanılabilecek araçlar ve paydaşların sorumlulukları üzerinden öneriler getirilmiştir.
Construction Industries is an improving sector all around the world, yet has a vast environmental impact regarding energy and natural resources consumption. 18th and especially 19th centuries whereas environmental impacts had been swiftly increased, even though people's welfare level was increased by the technological improvements realized during Industrial Revolution which is the crossroads not only historically but environmentally as well, natural resources have begun to be consumed rapidly. Researches reveal that 50% of present environmental pollution occurred in last 35 years. In accordance with this environmental policies which rose as a new political area in Europe in the beginning of 1970's started dealing with "reducing the present hazards that already occurred". In 1980's hazards caused by industrial processes (pollution and emission thresholds) entered in the agenda of the policies. However, it was observed that only developing clean technologies and providing pollution control did not provide enough success on behalf of environmental protection. Afterwards, one more step was made to "prevent the hazards at source" and environmental effects of specific polluting products and services was tried to be taken under control, at particular phases, before the effects were realized. As a result of these practices, it was revealed that, any preventative cautions that were taken at one point of the process, no matter how successful those are, cannot be able to prevent the hazards at the end of the process. It was understood that clear production is not enough for a clean end product. Improved and developed by the experiences from the practices with the requirements of the age, environmental product policies, being the final point reached nowadays, has been adopted all over the world and especially in the developed countries as an important component of environmental policies and is approved as an integrated approach to provide not only "clean" production but the final "clean" product, as well. 7 each Environmental Action Plans has been prepared up to date starting from 1973 intended for improving the environmental policies. Integrated Product Policies and applications in EU countries developed by European Commission within the scope of 6th Environmental Action Plan with a due date till 2012 is remarkable. In environmental policies the process of product orientation started with The Blue Angel eco-label developed by Germany in 1977. Followed by especially Northern European Countries whom improved the process by researches, reports and studies focused on the product, by the beginning of 2000's sustainability and clean production concepts being taken into the agenda has enabled by June 2003 an union action plan named EU Integrated Product Policy (IPP). Under this policy which aims to control and reduce environmental impact of products throughout their life cycle in cooperation with the relevant stakeholders, in particular, applications to reduce the environmental impact of building materials and products are examined. In order to achieve the aim of IPP in each country different tools which are shaped through the economic, environmental and social priorities are used. xviii This thesis; was emerged with the idea building materials industry has a significant share causing environmental impacts, to reveal and evaluate the adopted principles and tools for control and reducing of environmental impact caused by the building materials sector in Turkey through European Union Integrated Product Policy. In this study IPP has been examined through the policies in practice in 5 different EU countries. Followed by, examination and comparison of the actual situation in our country for the evaluation of the environmental impacts of construction materials and declaration in this policy's frame. Accordingly; Objective of the study is defined, also the scope and methods used for this purpose set forth in the first section. In the second section; EU Integrated Product Policy developed intending to reduce environmental impacts caused throughout the life cycle of the products has been reviewed. In this respect; policy's aim, improvement and features were referred, instruments that have been utilized and the life cycle thinking, eco-design, industrial ecology and waste management which are some of the most important approaches providing input into their formation were examined. In the third section; IPP applications in 5 EU member countries were revealed within construction sector and environmental impacts coverage. Amongst the chosen countries; Denmark, representing Scandinavian Countries from Northern Europe, Finland from Nordic Countries regarding the vast usage of the policy tools, Germany from Middle Europe, Spain to represent Southern Europe and being not only a Mediterranean Country but having a very similar economy to Turkey, as well and finally United Kingdom even though being in almost same geographic position, standing politically more independent then others. The researches were compiled in construction sector and environmental impacts relationship for each country. In the fourth section; the tools forming Turkey construction materials/products sector under the IPP frame was examined based on 3 types of tools under Dalhammar&Mont classification which is approved by international foundations like UN and OECD. Under the coverage of "administrative tools", the first one of these, environmental legislation, standards and strategical certificates; secondly, under the coverage of "economic tools", taxes, fees, fines, funds, incentives and promotions with research and development and finally under the coverage of "informative tools" European Environmental Agency, safety data sheets, product associations, industry, trade and professional development related organizations were examined. To follow the tools to be developed in construction products in private were covered, the tools used in Turkey compared with the chosen countries. In the final part of the study; the outcomes of the studies were evaluated, to reveal and evaluate the adopted principles and tools for control and reducing of environmental impact caused by the building materials sector via tools that can be utilized and responsibilities of the stakeholders to help achieving success in the usage of product declarations in Turkey through European Union Integrated Product Policy. Accordingly; it was observed that the Environmental awareness in developed countries is considerably high. We can propose for Turkey, any legislation that will be prepared by local or national administrations, will not be of use without required scientific, economic, technological and social infrastructure. During the literature scanning performed for the study, studies performed and policies applied in Turkey and world were utilized. The project data were obtained primarily through a vast review of a range of resources found in the university library, academic and professional paper summaries, bibliographical data basis and web based search engines. This study is prepared using the data formed by knowledge reached and ideas with conclusions arrived thereof.