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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / İnşaat Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı / Ulaştırma Mühendisliği Bilim Dalı

2017

Adıyaman için bir monoray çalışması

A monorail study for Adiyaman

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Özet:

Modern yaşamın en önemli öğelerinden biri olan ulaştırma, tüm toplum için can alıcı öneme sahiptir. Modern yaşamın gerekleri ve sunumları arasında en önemlilerinden birinin seyahat etme özgürlüğü olduğu düşünülürse ve bu da insanların istedikleri zaman istedikleri yerde olması gerektiği anlamına gelirse; ulaştırmanın nasıl bir öneme sahip olduğu daha iyi anlaşılır. Bu da şehir yaşantısında etkili, planlı, verimli bir ulaştırma ağının nasıl bir değere sahip olduğunu gözler önüne serer Ulaştırma sistemlerinin kritik bir şekilde artan bir talep olması ve teknolojiyle, çevreyle iç içe bir ilişkiye sahip olması, planlama uzmanlarının sürekli artan bu ulaşım ihtiyacını, nasıl projelendirecekleri konusunda, büyük zorluk çekmelerine sebep olmaktadır. Lastikli karayolu taşıtlarına, gün geçtikçe artan talep ve bu talep hızına yetişemeyen karayolu ağları, şehir içi trafiğin özellikle zirve saatlerinde, tıkanıklığında büyük rol oynamıştır. İlk olarak şehir içi trafik tıkanıklığı çözüm metodunun yeni yapılacak yollarla olacağı düşünülmüştür. Bu çözüm kısa vadeli olsa da işe yaramış, sorunu çözer gibi gözükmüştür. Ancak zamanla, artan yeni yolların, lastikli karayolu araçlarına olan talebi arttırdığı gözlenmiştir. Tıkanıklık değişmemiş zamanla artmıştır. Uzmanlar çözümü farklı ulaşım seçeneklerinde aramaya başlamışlardır. Şehir içi ulaşımda, tıkanıklığa en iyi çözümün raylı sistemler olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Dünyada, özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde, bu trafik-yolcu yükünü taşıyabilen yegâne sistemin raylı sistemler olduğu zamanla öğrenilmiş ve bu raylı sistemler gün geçtikçe, artan ulaşım ağlarıyla şehirleri nefes alacak bir konuma getirmişlerdir. Raylı sistemler içerisinde en fazla ağa sahip olan metrolar yüksek maliyetli olduklarından ve uzun süreli yapımlarından dolayı, şehir içi ulaşımda daha ekonomik ulaşım tercihleri gündeme gelmiştir. Bu tercihlerden biri hafif raylı sistemlerdir ancak hafif raylı sistemler ayrı bir ulaşım platformuna gereksinim duymakta, bu da zaten şehir içinde kısıtlı olan alanların tüketilmesi anlamına gelmektedir. Alan tüketimi konusunda fazlasıyla tasarruf sağlayan monoray sistemi tam bu noktada devreye girmektedir. Monoray sistemi, yerden yükseltili olması, elektrikle çalışması sebebiyle şehir içi toplu taşıma sistemi anlayışında yeni bir dönem açmıştır. Monoraylar, çevreci olması ve modern görünümüyle şehir içi ulaşımda, mevcut sistemlere alternatif bir çözüm olmaktadır. Monoraylar hızı 80 km/saat kadar olabilen, vagon sayısı kapasite ihtiyacına göre değişebilen, tek ray üzerinde seyir halinde olan, yükseltili hatlarda çalışabildiği gibi tünellerde ve yeryüzünde de çalışabilen, alan tasarrufu yapan araçlardır. Adıyaman nüfus ve sosyo-ekonomik yapı dikkate alındığında özel araç kullanım oranın yüksek olduğu bir şehirdir. Nüfus çeşitli sebeplerden dolayı son zamanlarda hızla artmakta, tarım arazileri dâhil olmak üzere, şehirde boş kalmış alanların çoğu beton yapılarla dolmaktadır. Nüfus artışının etkilediği hizmetlerin başında ulaşım gelmektedir. Şehrin ana arteri sayılan Atatürk Bulvarı, anahtar noktaları dolaşmakta, şehrin tüm mahallelerine girişleri ve şehirlerarası bağlantıyı sağlamaktadır. Ancak bu ana arteri boylu boyunca dolaşan bir ulaşım sistemi mevcut değildir. Atatürk Bulvarı üzerinde, karayolu trafiğini kesintiye uğratmayacak, tıkanıklığı önleyecek, çevre dostu ve sürdürülebilir bir ulaşım çözümü gerekmektedir. Bu tezde, karayolu trafiğini aksatmayacak, kesintiye uğratmayacak, alandan tasarruf sağlayacak, ekonomik bir ulaşım sistemi olan monoray hattının iyi çözüm olacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu tezde ilk olarak monoray sistemleri ile ilgili literatür çalışması yapılmış, sonrasında kent içi toplu taşıma sistemlerinden bahsedilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde monorayların genel özelliklerinden bahsedilmiş; dünya üzerinde bulunan örneklerinden ve Türkiye'de bulunan projeler ile ilgili bilgi verilmiştir. Tezin dördüncü bölümünde Adıyaman ile ilgili monoray çalışmalara yer verilmiştir. Son bölümde sistemin kurulması halinde beklenen sonuçlardan ve önerilerden bahsedilmiştir. Kurulması düşünülen monoray sistemi ile özel araç kullanımı ve karayolu toplu taşıma sistemi kullanıcılarını monoray sistemine çekmek hedeflenmektedir. Görüşü alınan şehir sakinlerine göre karayolu ulaşım sistemlerinden monoray sistemine geçiş azımsanmayacak oranda olacaktır

Summary:

Transport is one of the most important elements of modern life and it has a crucial importance to all community. From the beginning of civilization, transportation has been one of the most vital need for all human kind. Travel freedom is one of the most important requirements and presentations of modern life. Travel freedom means that it should be allowed that people can be anywhere when and where they wanted. This shows us in the city life, how value is to have an efficient, productive and planned transportation network. Transportation systems have a demand that critically growing by the time. Also, those systems have an interbedded relationship with environment and technology. Therefore transport planning experts have a great difficulty capturing about how they are going to designed the need for this ever-increasing transport demand. Although groving demand to rubber wheeled road vehicles, road networks do not keep up with the rate of the demand especially in inner-city traffic peak hours. Hence this situation played a big role in traffic congestion. At first it was thought that the problem of urban traffic congestion would be solved by the new motorways that opened to service. This solution has worked for short term, it solves the problem in the beginning. But over time it has been observed that increasing of new highways brings with increasing in rubber wheeled vehicles. Contrary to anticipated and planned, traffic congestion has not decreased over time it has increased by the time. Urban planners have begun to search different transportation options for the solution of traffic congestion problem. It is seen that the best solution for urban transportation is railways systems. In developed countries, it is understood that the only system that can carry the load of traffic passenger is railway systems by the time. The increasing railway systems networks make cities have a position to breathable. There are some species of railway systems. Metro is one of them and it has the highest cost and long-lasting due to the construction time. So metro has the biggest transport network in the railway systems. Because of thhis expensive cost , more economical transportation preferences have come to the fore in urban transportation options. One of these preferences are light rail systems. However light rail systems require a separate area and infrastrcture which vehicle can move through it. So it means that limited area in the city is being consumed by light rail systems. Monorail systems which is exellent for saving space is become irreplaceable at this point. Monorail system, due to elevated from the ground and electricity powered has led to a new understanding of the urban public transport system period. Monorail systems are environmentalist and it has modern appearance which proves to be an alternative solution for the urban transportation. The system operated automatically, it has high technological properties that make the system safest public transit vehicle. The system can be used as a connection transit system to other urban transportation system. This situation is the one of the important purpose of transportation systems which is contact all the transport systems to each othersThis purpose means that transport systems should not have been compare each others all the time, all the systems must have an integrity and connection in the transportation network. Therefore this integrated transport system make easier life for society by its complementary feature. There are two types of monorails mainly used which are straddle type and suspended type monorails. Straddle type monorails make its movement on the reinforced column structure. This type structure elevated by columns and supported by beams. Therefore it is a very durable and strengthened system. Suspended type system do not have columns below the vehicle. Monorails attached to beam above the system that able allow to movement of the vehicle. The suspended system used rarely because of its appearance and the system needs a bigger space for its construction. It is preferred mostly straddle type monorail system in public transportation because it is more convenient to city apperance.The straddle type monorail presents more reliable transit option and has a good harmony with city view. The straddle type monorail systems do not need a big space for its construction so the system makes space saving with this way. Monorails system does not effect from the weather condition(rain, wind, etc.) as much as the other transport vehicles. Monorails speed can be up to 80 km/h and the system has a variable capacity according to the number of wagons. Monorails make the environment cleaner by use of electricity power for its operating system. Also the city air becames cleaner with using this clean energy. In transportation systems for energy issues and for planet future, these kind of system are the best solution. Because monorail systems do not interrupt highway traffic nor damage wild life. Contrary this system can be used in jungle or forest to provide connection between other transport systems. Monorails have a structure that environmentally friendly so that emission of harmful gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrates very low degree. Because of its electricity power sources monorails can be counted emission zero. All this significant properties of monorail system has an attractive impact on society. Monorail systems are an indispensable transportation systems for big cities. Even cities which are not cosmopolite or very crowded tend to use the monorail systems as a savior for their transport issues. Adıyaman could be one of these cities. Adıyaman is a historical place.It history goes to 40.000 BC. Earlier years of Rebuclic of Turkey it depends on Malatya City. Adıyaman becomes a city in 1954.The city is in the southeast in Turkey.It has borders with Gaziantep, Kahramanmaraş, Şanlıurfa, Diyarbakır and Malatya so the city has many big neighbourd cities makes the city stay small but it is still a developing region. With the influence of the industrial and economic ties with Gaziantep, the development of the city has shifted towards the west of the city. The city has many historical places like Mount Nemrut which take attention of tourists. This place is under protection of UNESCO. Adıyaman has very important reservoirs such as oil, natural gases and marble stone. The city has an old infrastructure system that has not been changed since early years of its establishment. The city has a crowded main boulevard which is called Atatürk Boulevard. This is the only main boulevard that open all the key point of city so it provides main highway traffic in city. Although Adıyaman has traditionally demographic and socio-economic structure; private car usage is high there in the city. The population increases rapidly due to various reasons such as including farmland, lately most of the empty fields get filled with construction of buildings in the city. Transportation is one of the top services affected by the increasing population. Considered the city's main artery Atatürk Boulevard, getting around the key points and all the city's neighborhoods and long distance trips feed the artery. Adıyaman University, one of the big hospitals such as Park Hospital and 82.yıl Hastanesi , Küçük Sanayi Sitesi as a business gate of many people. areIt is on the boulevard.This makes a lot of people travelling every day to go work,study and g oto hospitals on the boulevard. It is necessary for the transportation sector to be developed in the city in order to be able to develop the city with such a rich history and natural beauties, to introduce itself and to appreciate the worth it deserves. However this main artery Atatürk Boulevard ,in the city, does not have a transportation system which throughout travel the city. Different transportation systems can be considered to solve the traffic intensity coming to Ataturk Bulvar. Examples of these systems are metrobus, light rail systems, public transport system options such as trams, and ramp measurement. However, these public transport systems are in a situation where the city can take negative public reaction to this route. Because this region of the city is the most valuable part of the city in terms of real estate. An expropriation process that would be required for a different road transport vehicle and tracked rail systems will cause people to react.For this reason, the best solution for relieving traffic on Adıyaman Atatürk Boulevard will be monorail system, which needs less space than all other road and rail systems. The monorail system which is clean ,nature friendly and scrupulous about covering the area will relieve the traffic congestion that the Atatürk Boulevard route has. It is not necessary to cut off road transportation for the installation of the monorail systems, but the highway traffic can easily continue with the monorail system. This is why the monorail systems are installed in an elevated way. Firstly, the pevious studies take places in literatüre view of this thesis. In these studies, monorail system was mentioned in big cities of different countries. The next section mentions public transport systems and vehicles used in urban transport. The pros and cons of these systems are emphasized. In the third chapter, general properties of monorails are mentioned and examples of using of monorails in different parts of the world are given. In the fourth chapter, some studies on the establishment of monorail in Adıyaman province were given. In the last part of the thesis, the results of this thesis are examined.