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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Bilişim Enstitüsü / Bilişim Anabilim Dalı / Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri Bilim Dalı

Afet yönetimine yönelik açık veri modeli ve konumsal analiz araçlarının geliştirilmesi: Heyelan ve sel örneği

Developing open geo-data model and analysis tools for disaster management: Landslide and flood case

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Özet:

Afet-acil durum yönetiminde Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri?nin (CBS) kullanılması; afet zararlarının azaltılması, yaşamların ve kaynakların korunmasına, etkin müdahale ve yıkımların kontrolüne yardımcı olmaktadır. Afetlerin birbirini tetikleyen doğası dikkate alındığında depremden kuraklığa, selden ulaşım kazasına birçok afet tipinin bütünleşik yönetimine yönelik yaklaşımların belirlenmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, afet-acil durum yönetim sisteminin kurulması için sel ve heyelan afet tipi örneğiyle afet yönetiminin zarar azaltma, hazırlık, müdahale ve iyileştirme aşamalarındaki ?Aktivite? `ler analiz edilmiştir. Her bir aktivitenin CBS ile yönetimine yönelik alt ?İş? adımları tanımlanmış, bu işlerde üretilecek ve kullanılacak veri içeriği belirlenmiştir. Tanımlanan veri içeriği, ilgili sektör çalışanları ve örnek CBS uygulamaları ile irdelenmiştir. Tez kapsamında geliştirilen Afet-Acil Durum Yönetim Sistemi (ADYS) veri modeli, sel ve heyelan afet tiplerinin yönetimine yönelik açık veri değişimine uygun ve birlikte çalışabilir yapıda olup ISO/TC211 Coğrafi bilgi komitesi standartları temel alınarak model bazlı yaklaşımla UML-Tekil Modelleme Dili kullanılarak geliştirilmiştir. Hazırlanan modeldeki detaylar, ilişkiler, öznitelikler ve değerler sınıf diyagram ve paket diyagram olarak nesneye yönelik ilişkisel biçimde modellenmiştir. ADYS Veri Modeli, GML-Coğrafi İşaretleme Dili özeliklerine göre açık veri değişim formatına dönüştürülmüştür. ADYS veri modeli, ulusal düzeyde birlikte çalışabilirliği sağlamak amacıyla TUCBS ve KBS projeleri kapsamında hazırlanan veri modelleri ile uyumlu tasarlanmıştır. Bunun yanında TABİS obje kataloğundaki tanımlamalar da dikkate alınmıştır. Sel ve heyelan afetlerine yönelik olarak hazırlanan aktivitelerin gerçekleştirilmesi amacıyla ADYS coğrafi veri modeli ile uyumlu ADYS konumsal analiz araçları geliştirilmiştir. Bu analiz araçları ilgili aktivitelerin gerçekleştirilmesinde kullanıcılara kolaylık sağlaması hedeflenmektedir. Açık kaynaklı CBS yazılımı olan Quantum GIS ortamında Sextante eklentisi ile SAGA GIS, GRASS GIS konumsal analiz araçları kullanılarak geliştirilmiş olup; tehlike, zarar görebilirlik, vb. afet yönetimi aktivitelerinin gerçekleştirilmesinde kullanılabilmektedir. Ayrıca açık kaynaklı olmalarından dolayı kullanıcıların bu analiz araçlarına ihtiyaçları doğrultusunda değişiklik yapabilmeleri mümkündür. Tez çalışması kapsamında geliştirilen ADYS veri modeli ve konumsal analiz araçları çeşitli pilot çalışma alanlarında örnek veri setleri kullanılarak, oluşturulan afet yönetimi aktiviteleri ile test edilmiştir.

Summary:

Emergency management aims to reduce potential losses from emergency cases, provides essential assistance to victims, and achieves rapid and effective recovery. Emergency management includes several activities for pre-disaster, during and post- disaster phases. So an emergency management work illustrates a cycle of process for developing policies, activities with mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery phases. Mitigation and preparedness are pre-disaster phases. Mitigation phase includes activities for reducing impact of disasters. Preparedness involves some activities how to respond in case of a disaster. Response phase includes activities for minimizing effects during disaster case. And recovery phase includes several activities for returning life to normal after a disaster. Today, the realization of an effective emergency management, geographic information system (GIS) has an important role. There are a lot of application field of GIS in emergency management studies such as landslide, flood, avalanche, wildfire disasters. Considering nature of disasters that triggers each other emergency management approaches should be determined. Disasters are events that occur depending on a location. In this regard geographic information system can provide solutions to disasters quickly and effectively. By modeling disasters in GIS environment we can get results very close to reality. Based on these results can be used as input data in defined activities of emergency management phases. So the emergency management plan which is supported by GIS could be more efficient in comprising different cases. In emergency management studies, GIS is used mostly in spatial analysis and mapping operations. In these studies not only static data but also dynamic data has very important role. Maps and base geo-data sets such as buildings, roads and boundaries are included in static data category. Beside decision makers may need dynamic data such as meteorological data, earthquake data, flow etc. for generating hazard and risk maps of disasters even can perform real time analysis by using spatial analysis tools. Today different GIS software and several data sources have been using in emergency management works. In this case interoperability couldn't established between incompatible software and data sources. And the data used for these works effects directly the accuracy of the results. In this regard the successful functioning of the emergency management system, geo-data content standards should be defined that provide interoperability and it should be independent from any software and hardware. Otherwise the emergency management system which works with unsuitable data will be ineffective in the case of disasters. This study describes the development of interoperable geo-data model and spatial analysis tools for landslide and flood disasters. For this purpose, emergency management ?activities? have been determined within the scope of fight against landslide and flood disasters. These activities were defined at mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases. Then, ?tasks? were defined for each activity. After that geo-data requirements were defined by ?data necessity analysis? to cope with each task. This lists includes detailed definitions and associations of the geo-data which will be used in the tasks. The definitions and associations of the geo-data which in the activity-task-data analysis have been modeled according to ISO/TC 211 modeling standards by using Unified Modeling Language (UML). UML is a modelling language used for software development process, data modelling, business modelling, object modelling in object oriented view. By the way the conceptual schemas that describe the real world have been developed. After this step application schemas have been generated from conceptual schemas. These schemas establish interoperability of the geo-data between different applications. Application schemas are XML schemas with definitions in the field of use of geo-data. In this study UML models have been transformed by using ShapeChange tool and generated Emergency Management Geo-Data Model (ADYS). And different data sets such as building, roads, administrative boundaries etc. converted to GML open geo-data exchange format. ADYS geo-data model was developed for emergency management activities with flood and landslide example. The geo-model is compatible with Turkey National GIS (TUCBS) and Urban Information System of Turkey (KBS) geo-data models. And the specifications of Turkish Disaster Information System (TABIS) have been taken into account. So interoperability is provided at conceptual level. TUCBS and KBS base geo-data themes such as Address, Land Cover, Building, Administrative Unit, Hydrography, Geodesy, Orthophoto, Land Registry-Cadastre, Topography, and Transportation are associated with ADYS. And, each activity use or produce emergency management related geo-data sets in ADYS geo-data model. Considering ADYS emergency management activites, open source spatial analysis tools have been developed. As an example of this study; landslide hazard analysis, flood vulnerability analysis and disaster early warning system analysis have been performed. During analysis ADYS geo-data model has been used. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique, one of the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), was applied to generate landslide hazard map and flood vulnerability map. GIS based MCDA is used for choosing one or more geographically defined alternatives with respect to evaluation criteria. AHP technique deals with complex decision making and can help to determine weights of selected criteria for emergency management well. And maximum coverage location analysis performed to find optimum locations for disaster early warning system. Analysis tools using ADYS geo-data model have been developed for the several tasks in the activity list by using open source GIS software. In Quantum GIS open source software environment with SEXTANTE plugin, analysis tools were built by using GRASS GIS and SAGA GIS tools. These analysis tools are open source so users can modified them for their issues. ADYS geo-data model is considered as the input for these spatial analysis tools and aimed composing an automated analysis system. By the way, the emergency management plans will be more efficient and events could be quickly responded in an emergency situation. ADYS geo-data model and analysis tools have been tested for different activites on the pilot regions.