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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı / Mimarlık Tarihi ve Kuramı Bilim Dalı

Aksaray Kılıçarslan Tepesi'ndeki 'köşk' yapısı

'Kiosk' building on the hill of Aksaray Kiliçarslan

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Özet:

Anadolu'nun merkezinde bulunan Aksaray, 12. yüzyılda Anadolu Selçukluları'nın hakimiyeti altına girmesiyle birlikte İslam?Orta Asya kültür ve sanat ortamının izlerini barındıran yeni bir kimlik kazanmıstır. Kentteki yapılardan biri de Selçuklular döneminde insa edildigi ve 12.?15. yüzyıllarda da kullanıldıgı kabul edilen Kılıçarslan Tepesi'ndeki `Kösk' yapısıdır. Biri kare, digeri kareye yakın dikdörtgen planlı iki mekanın bir araya gelmesinden olusan yapının islevine iliskin tartısmalar bulunmaktadır. Konumu ve plan seması ile özel bir durum sergileyen yapı Selçuklu köskleri ile 12.?15. yüzyıllarda Anadolu'da bulunan zaviye ve benzeri islevli yapılarla iliskilendirilmektedir. Kösk yapısı bu baglamda irdelenerek, günümüzdeki ve geçmisteki tüm bilesenleri tekrar ortaya koyularak, konumu, yakınındaki türbeyle iliskisi, mekanlar arasındaki baglantılar ve yapım teknigi farklılıkları gözetilerek tekrar ele alınmıstır. Yapıyla ilgili veriler sınırlıdır ve yapı çevresinde daha önce hiçbir arkeolojik kazı yapılmamıstır. 1992 yılındaki onarım sonucunda da geçmis izlerinin birçogunu kaybetmistir. Bu duruma ragmen eldeki veriler yapının özgün durumuna iliskin fikir vermekte ve üç farklı durum sunmaktadır. Fakat her üç durumda da kösk yapısının bir türbe?mescit seklinde düzenlendigi ve çevresine yeni yapılar ile mekanlar eklenerek yapının bir zaviye haline getirildigi sonucuna varılabilir. 13. yüzyılın baslarından itibaren kullanılmaya baslanan yapı alanının 14. yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren degisiklikler geçirdigi ve yeniden insa edildigi düsünülebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Aksaray, Selçuklu, Kösk, Zaviye, Ortaçag Mimarlıgı

Summary:

Aksaray where is located in the center of Anatolia had gained a new identity containing Islamic-Middle Asia cultural and art effects after it was invaded by Anatolian Seljuks in 12th century. `The kiosk? on Aksaray Kılıçarslan Hill which was built during Seljuk period and has been used between 12th and 15th centuries is one of the examples to seek these effects. There?s no clear definition about the function of this building. The buildings consist of two different shapes. One of them has a square shape plan and the other one has a rectangular plan which is more likely to a square. As indicated before the purpose of the kiosk is not clear but there are many ideas which corresponds the use of buildings like other Seljuk kiosks and small dervish lodges. The aim of this thesis is to figure out the function of this building which has been suffering problems regarding architecture history and to find out more about it?s resume by searching all past and actual components and making a comparison with the other buildings which has typological relation. In the first part of this study, a brief summary of Aksaray was given to indicate the importance of city concerning political and cultural events of the period. Afterwards, architectural activities between 12th to 15th century is defined and a research was held concerning the buildings survived until today in terms of building techniques and architectural specifications. In the second part of the study the actual situation of the kiosk was documented. The location, facilities, construction method and all restorations that it had were indicated. Also it?s relation between Kılıcarslan Tomb was noted. Plan and sectional drawings of the kiosk was prepared in 1/50 scale and these drawings were supported by photographs. In the third part of the study a general comparison was held between kiosk and the other Seljuk buildings which took place in Anatolia between 12th to 15th centuries. In this comparison the major criterias were location, schematic plan and construction techniques. In the final part of the study, it was tried to be determined the different uses of the building by gathering past studies and actual observations concerning the ultimate situation oh the building. It was tried to find an answer regarding all discussions concerning the history and purpose of the building. The relations between Kiosk to other Seljuk and Sultanates period (12th?15th centuries) kiosks, lodges and other type of buildings were indicated. In addition ideas have been developed concerning the unique situation of the building. Finally, it should be admitted that the data about the building is limited and no archeological excavation took place before. Also 1992 restoration resulted with a loss of fingertips of history. Despite all these disadvantages, we can concentrate on three different situations. But in any case the common idea is the kiosk was build as a tomb and masjid and by added new facilities it was converted to a small dervish lodge. It?s true to think that the kiosk had been used from the beginning of 13th century and rebuilds after the second half of 14th century with some modifications.