İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı / Mimari Tasarım Bilim Dalı
Akyaka yerleşmesinin kentsel ve mimari oluşumunda yerel veri kullanımının irdelenmesi
Use of local data in urban and architectural formation of Akyaka settlement
Fidan Şahin - 2014Teze Git (tez.yok.gov.tr)
Mimari tasarım sürecinde yerel veri kullanımının doğal ve kültürel sürdürülebilirlik açısından önemi büyüktür. Günümüz mimarisinde bu anlayış kaybolmaya yüz tutmuş ve kent dokusunun gelişimi yere özgü olmaktan çok tipik birbirini tekrar eden kent dokuları şeklinde devam ettiği gözlenmektedir. Oysaki her yerleşimin kendine özgü bir coğrafyası, kültürü, yaşam tarzı gibi birçok doğal ve kültürel verileri vardır. Bu veriler doğrultusunda gerçekleşen tasarım süreçleri hem kent kimliği hem de kullanıcılar açısından yerel mimarlık kavramını yansıtmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, günümüzde varlığını sürdürmeye çalışan mimaride yerel veri kullanımının mimari tasarım sürecindeki önemini vurgulayarak, bu süreçlerin nasıl geliştiğini ve uygulandığını Akyaka örneği üzerinden incelemektir. Özellikle Akyaka yerleşmesinden yola çıkılmasının sebebi, Akyaka'da Nail Çakırhan'ın kendi için yaptığı evle Ağa Han Mimarlık ödülünü kazanmasıyla Akyaka'daki mimari gelişim sürecinin farklılaşmasıdır. Çünkü Nail Çakırhan'ın yaptığı bu ev ve bunu izleyen diğer yapıları, Ula'da çocukluğunun geçtiği evin bir replikası şeklindedir. Bu durum kuramsal hem de mimari örnekler üzerinden incelenmiştir. Tezin kuramsal bağlamında, yerellik kavramı, yerel veri kullanımın mimari tasarım sürecindeki etkileri, mimari örnekler üzerinden irdelenmiş, bu çerçevede yerel veriler doğal ve kültürel veriler olarak iki başlık altında ele alınmıştır. Mimari tasarım ürününün biçimlenişinde ilkelere dayanan örnekler İlkesel Tasarımlar, var olan biçimlere dayanan tasarımlar da Biçimsel Tasarımlar olarak adlandırılmıştır. Üçüncü ve dördüncü bölümlerde, Akyaka yerleşmesinin kuramsal çerçevede incelenen başlıklar altında durumu ele alınacak ve Akyaka'nın ilişkili bulunduğu çevre mimarisi ile karşılaştırmalı irdelemesi yapılacaktır. Bu karşılaştırma yerleşme makroformu, kentsel mekan düzeni, mimari özellikler ve yapı elemanlarının incelenmesi şeklindedir. Ayrıca Akyaka yerleşiminin plan hükümleri tasarım parametreleri yönünden ele alınmıştır. Plan hükümlerinde yer alan tasarım parametreleri, tezin önceki bölümlerinde incelenen tasarım parametreleriyle karşılaştırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Böylece Akyaka yerleşmesinin yapılaşma şartlarının, tasarım sürecinde etkili olan tasarım parametrelerini ele alıp almadığı irdelenecektir. Son bölümde ise yapılan değerlendirmelerden elde edilen sonuçlar ortaya konmuştur. Yere özgü tasarım anlayışını irdelediğimiz bu durumda, Muğla, Ula, Akçapınar, Gökova, Gökçe ve Ören yerleşimlerinin tarihsel süreç içerisindeki özgün mimari gelişimi devam ederken, Akyaka'da Nail Çakırhan'ın Ula mimarisinin bir replikasını uygulaması ile birlikte mimari gelişimin farklı bir boyutta geliştiği görülmektedir.
In the architectural design process, use of local data is important for users and urban identity. This understanding is lost in contemporary architecture. The development of the urban texture is not location-specific, typically in the formof urban texture is repeated each other. Whereas each placement have many natural and cultural data as a unique geography, culture and lifestyle. This data is in line with the design process, in terms of both urban identity and users reflects the local architecture concept. In this study we examined the location of settlements in Akyaka, Muğla province, Ula is optional and one ofthe settlements on the edge of the Gulf of Gökova. Town of Akyaka with a population of 2621 according to the 2009 statistics, excursionist during the summer with the arrival of 10.000-12.000 population reached is a seaside resort. Town for tourism, small apartments, hotel and family pension management shows the development. 60% of the population, tourism and business lines and 40% from the agricultural sector subsists in, 20% of it is to provide aliving from fishing. Since 1983, the township people dealing with tourism, have the skills and cultural experience within the basin slopes Gokova small family business serving the tourism, hotels, apartments and family pension has been directed towards business. First degree in natural sites protected alternative tourism (bird watching, walking paths, etc..) can be assessed, jogging, kite surfing, canoeing and so on income derived from tourism intellectual poverty of the people of the region broken families will have the opportunity to send their children to education, with courage, to freely express their thoughts educating the young people will develop different from Bodrum and Marmaris tourism. The purpose of this study, the use oflocal data in the architecture by emphasizing the importance of the architectural design process, how to decelop and implemented these process is to examine throught examples of that. Especially the reason for starting from Akyaka, Nail Çakırhan designed a house for himself in Akyaka, and this house has won the Aga Khan Award for Architecture so Akyaka architecture of the development process is differentiation. Because Nail Çakırhan this home and his followed other structures are replika of his childhood home in Ula. This situation has been examined in both theoretical and architectural examples. Earlier in Akyaka settlement structures, small-scale fishing ports in the traditional manner, or 3 bedroom, open sofa consists of a simple structure. Nail Çakırhan for himself after his home, also to close friends, their request have been made on the structure of Akyaka near 70. Thereupon, in cooperation with the municipality, out of an existing regulation Akyaka provisions have created plans. After editing the provisions of this plan, Akyaka settlement pattern that may be present in any part of Turkey gridal development has contiuned in the form of an urban fabric. Nail Çakırhan for himself in his home in Akyaka, Akyaka and related environmental architecture actually is close to the original tissue. However, due to the requirements of the provisions of the plan in Akyaka showed that different developmental planning. Here, Nail Çakırhan's respect for and awareness of the traditional tissue to mention is inevitable. Because it formed in contemporary architecture and the architecture of our cities these characters maintain an identity is not even mentioned. The purpose of this study was also determined and this data is compared to this change. In the theoretical framework of the study, the effects of the use of local data in the architectural design process, defining the concept of locality were examined throught examples of architecture, additionally local data has been analyzed under two headings as natural and cultural data. The tissue begins to form a settlement, the tissue carries a similar nature. These similarities or common language, we can give the name of the locality. However, the extensions comprisingthe tissue grows, it expands the area covered by locality and in common language, this begins to form different sizes. In this regard, we have examined the scale analysing the concept of locality is important. The purpose of the concept of subsidiarity discussed, is the concept of originality in the local architecture. When we consider examples of contemporary architecture, away from many such originality, forms of imitation or concernscan say that the examples. To see this distinction as principled and formal designs by creating two main topics were studied over a few examples. The concept of locality sampling in the field of architectural practice are made Principle and Formal Source data. In the architectural design process, examples of use of local data are Principle Source Data, a sampling design in the form of a replica of the formal is grouped as Formal Data. The reason for this comparison, the thesis constitutes the source of Akyaka Formal Design in the settlement entered into this classification is capable of. In considering the use of local data analysis was performed under two main headings. With this assessment, the impact of local data emphasize the importance of tissue architecture, Akyaka layout features are described in this theoretical framework. This classification; Natural Data: Climate, Geological Data, Landscape and Fauna - Flora, Cultural Data: Identity, History, Social Structure and Economy was carried out. This classification is made and analyzed each region's unique natural conditions and cultural data found that thus the importance of the impact architecture are highlighted. Akyaka placement of these theories are discussed in terms of the situation. Although Akyaka of the settlement date prolonged the BC mid-5th century, in the life of this historic continuity has not been mentioned. Works surviving from this date, they are in the form of a historical monument. In addition, there are gaps in the historical continuity of the settlement. A large part of this period, but not enough information about, we have examined the processes of life of the region in the period does not show continuity in terms of architecture. Over this period, the region's architecture in different aspects of the development process have survived. The third and fourth sections, Akyaka settlement of the situation will be discussed under the headings of studied in the theoretical framework. This comparison is examined macroform settlements, urban space layout, architectural features and structural elements. These regions, Muğla, Ula Akyaka, Gokova, Akçapınar, Gokce and ruins of settlements. Examined all of the settlements are located in the Gulf of Gokova. Akyaka settlement and about the immediate environment has been identified natural and cultural data. Gokova Gulf of seven settlements in the region's natural and cultural data by determining whether or not a joint tissues were observed. One of the prominent differences when comparing the first is the difference in Akyaka macroform settlement. While in other residential development in the history of the settlement macroform evolves in an organic order, Akyaka axis perpendicular and parallel development has been the placement. Another difference between the years of 1930-40 Akyaka, Gokova, Akçapınar and Gokce residential typologies is the similarity of the plan. This similarity to be seen in this region, the proximity of these settlements to each other and resemblance culturally to that family. In subsequent years, including the first settlement of Akyaka typologies have changed these plans. Examined in a residential area in the Gulf of Gokova 7, Akçapınar close to Akyaka Gokova and Gokce similarity with the settlement, Muğla Ula settlements and the similarities and Ören settlement, due to the proximity to the Bodrum peninsula from this region were found to have some differences. As a result, we can say that constitute the similarity in terms of local data to Akyaka, Akçapınar, Gokova and Akyaka Gokce settlements have been observed in the original urban fabric. Thus Akyaka different from the original texture of the urban fabric have been able to say that the observed development. Then Akyaka settlement provision of the plan are discussed in terms of design parameters. Design parameters contained inthe plan provision, thesis examined in the previous section are compared with the design parameters. Thus, in structuring conditions of the settlement of Akyaka, in the design process of design parameters that are effective, whether there is to be interpreted. Akyaka in the provisions of the plan, we see that we have examined parameters, it is only on the formal parameters to determine the structure. The effective use of local data in the design process architecture development and user comfort as well as for the process of settlement requirement has been emphasized in this study. In the last section has been demonstrated the results obtained from the evaluation. In this case we examine the site-specific design approach, while Muğle, Ula Akçapınar, Gökova, Gökçe and Ören architectural development continues original architectural settlement, Akyaka settlement architecture has differentiated with replicaof the Ula house. Akyaka settlement, the original tissue conspicuous similarity with the surrounding settlements and because of this situation Akyaka's original settlement formed in accordance with local data reveals. A number of urban settlements with the change of architectural planning problems have emerged. These street pattern, garden-like comfort of the life of the streets and building relationships can be said that material. However, in today's conditions of Nail Çakırhan this situation created in the conditions of that day and trying to figure out the location in Akyaka or add architectural character to the provisions of the plan can be edited by adding the necessary ingredients. Thus, in Akyaka created architectural identity, living comfort and urban planning will be acquired in layout. The first of these provisions should be regulated as residential structures are within the boundaries of the parcel. Building placement arranged will be obtained street formation, structure and use of green space plots, a more comfortable climate in the situation. Nail Çakırhan 's architecture Akyaka and the value provided to the culture, lose one of the cultural values of many settlements today. This architectural character to move to later generations and in order to use more efficient, Akyaka thesis under the provisions of the plan in the context of the use of local data should be evaluated by considering again, in Akyaka, this architectural and cultural value must be allowed to use more efficient. At present, uncomfortable living areas, in a twisted way of evolving urban fabric and as a result of these evolving trends make monumental buildings, site-specific architectural design concept that stems are ignored or lost. However, each region has its own unique natural and cultural data. These data formed by the non-use of our settlements, are losing their traditional tissue and is transferred to a different size in the future. This differentiation in the development of settlements transmission to future generations of the identity of the urban fabric leads to false. In this study, with special emphasis on this issue, which will be made to work is intended to contribute.