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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mühendislik Yönetimi Anabilim Dalı / Endüstri Mühendisliği Bilim Dalı

Algılanan şirket desteğini etkileyen faktörler ve algılanan şirket desteği ile çalışan bağlılığı arası ilişki

The factors affect perceived organizational support and the relationship between organizational commitment and perceived organizational support

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Özet:

Rekabetçi dünyada, çalışanların yarattığı know-how şirketlerin rakiplerine göre önde olmalarına yardımcı olan ana maddelerden biri haline gelmiştir. Bu sebeple şirketler, son yıllarda çalışanlarını da birer müşteri gibi görmekte ve memnun etme ihtiyacı hissetmektedirler. Çalışan memnuniyetinin artırılması için, organizasyon genelinde yapılan analizler sonucu çalışanların istekleri anlaşılmaya çalışılmış, başta insan kaynakları uygulamaları olmak üzere çalışanların algısını olumlu yönde belirleyebilmek için stratejik uygulamalar geliştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Şirketler, çalışan memnuniyetinin ölçülmesi için memnuniyet-tatmin seviyesi, çalışan bağlılığı, turnover gibi birçok kavramı irdelemişlerdir. Şirketlerin amacı, genel anlamda çalışan memnuniyetini artırarak çalışanın firmaya olan bağlılığını artırmak ve bu yolla da bilgili - deneyimli çalışanı firmada tutmaktır. Bu çalışanlar sayesinde hem kaliteli işler ortaya çıkarmayı hem de yeni personel eğitimi, işe alımı gibi maliyetlerin önüne geçebilmeyi hedeflemektedirler. Algılanan şirket desteği, kişinin içinde bulunduğu organizasyonu değerlendirerek, bu organizasyonun dinamiklerini dikkate alarak hissettiği desteği ifade eden bir kavramdır. Bu kavram da son yıllarda değeri daha çok ortaya çıkan, çalışan memnuniyeti veya aidiyetini ölçmek için kullanılabilecek bir kavramdır. Kişi, çalıştığı şirketin kendisini iş veya özel yaşamında ne kadar desteklediğine dair bir görüşe sahiptir. Algılanan şirket desteğini etkileyebilecek pek çok faktör bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, algılanan şirket desteğine etkidiği düşünülen boyutların incelenmesi, olası ilişkilerin ve bunların seviyesinin ortaya konmasıdır. Ayrıca, algılanan şirket desteği ile organizasyonel bağlılık arasındaki ilişki de bağımsız olarak inceleniyor olacaktır.

Summary:

During the last decades companies tried to make their customers satisfied. Because companies wanted to keep their market share or widen it. Most of the companies created different kinds of solutions to be successful in relationship with customers. They created CRM systems, learned more about customers and shape them according to their needs. By the way, the world is changing, only satisfying the customers is not sufficient now. In a competitive world, know-how that employee's created are one of the most powerful weapons for the companies to be more successful compared to their competitors. Not only customers but also company employees should be satisfied. To increase the satisfaction level, companies conducted internal projects to understand the employee needs. They generated strategic practices to change the employee's perception of the firm positively. Human resources are really important in this process. They get involved in most of dimensions to understand the employees. The other task for human resources is to align the needs of the employees and the limits of the company. Companies analyzed the levels of employee satisfaction, employee commitment, turnover and related items to measure the employee happiness - satisfaction. Companies' main goal is, by increasing the employee satisfaction level , increasing the commitment to the firm. So, they can keep the experienced employee. Experienced employees create more qualified jobs, compared to newly hired ones, they need to have less education and there will be no hiring -selecting costs. Perceived organizational support is, employees' perception of company's provided support. This notion is getting known by the companies day by day. It can help to measure the employee satisfaction and feel of belonging the firm. Besides, company can estimate the intention of leaving the company, so it can help to reducing turnover rates. Most of the employees have an idea on the perceived support on their current assignment and off-job-life. Companies try to change this perception to be more positive. There are so many factors can affect the perceived organizational support. HR practices such as selection and recruitment, incentives, career options, employee voice, job security, training, pay for performance, performance appraisal, compensation, participation, job profile, teamwork, communication, interesting work, hours of work, physical working conditions etc. Business strategies can also affect the perceived organizational support (POS). According to Porter (1985) there are three types of strategies; cost reduction, differentiation and focus. Companies can have different types of business strategies according to their internal and external dynamics. It can have an effect on their employees' perceived organizational support directly or indirectly. Job profile - characteristics, on the other hand, can have a direct impact on the perceived organizational support. some of the job profile dynamics can be listed as: job challenge, autonomy, task variety, perceived workload. These factors and the other factors related to job itself can create different perceptions on the perceived organizational support. Management support, on the other hand, can have a positive or negative effect on the employees' perceptions about the job and the firm. Because managers work with employee's closely, an employee who is supported and encouraged by his supervisor can express himself more confidently and this can help to feel positive about the company support, on the other hand another employee who is not helped about work or his problems and sometimes ignored by his supervisor, can probably feel negative about the firm. Stress has became a main problems in the work environment in the last years. Most of the employees complain about their stressful working conditions. So, stressors can also have an important affect on the perception. Work exhaustion, role ambiguity or role conflict can create stress on the employees. Employee commitment is another indicator of employee satisfaction. Organizational commitment is defined as attitudes or attachments individuals develop towards a particular organization. Organizational commitment consists of three components: affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Affective commitment refers to the emotional attachment to the organization; continuance commitment refers to the attachment to the organization out of necessity; and normative commitment refers to obligatory attachment to the firm. This study aims to understand the factors affect perceived organizational support, how they affect it and what is the level of the relation. Perceived organizational support analyzed on two different side, one is current assignment which means the job and task employee get, and the other one is off-job-life. Off-job-life means the personal life of the employee. Most of research analyzes the current assignment type of perceived organizational support. In this study perceived organizational support will be analyzed for off-work-life, too. Besides, there will be another analysis. How organizational commitment will be affected by percevied organizational support? It is another research question. In the first seven sections of the study, technical literature review about the factors affect perceived organizational support have been told in detail. In the eight section, the models which analyzed these factors directly or indirectly have been told. The unique factors in every model have been pointed out. Also, the study model have been told: how it is created and why these factors and their subsections are selected. According the model, hypothesis have been produced. At the last section, conclusion and possible future researches are told.