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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Şehir ve Bölge Planlama Anabilim Dalı

Alışveriş merkezi yer seçimi kriterleri ve kullanıcı memnuniyetinin değerlendirilmesi: İstanbul örneği

The evaluation of location selection criteria for shopping malls and the customer satisfaction: The example of Istanbul

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Özet:

Son dönemde Türkiye gayrimenkul pazarında önemli bir gelişme gösteren alışveriş merkezlerinin Türkiye ekonomisine büyük katkılara sağlamasıyanında her geçen gün günlük hayatımızdaki önemi daha da artmaktadır. Türkiye'de alışverişmerkezleri yatırımlarının artışgöstermesinde ekonomide yaşanan istikrar ortamı, alışverişmerkezi pazarındaki arzın yetersizliği, genç ve dinamik nüfus büyüklüğü, gelir düzeyinde yaşanan artış, diğer ülkelere göre yatırımlarda daha yüksek getiri oranlarının sağlanmasısayılabilir. Bu nedenle, alışverişmerkezlerinin öneminin son yıllarda ülkemizde artmasıyla, yatırımlar ivme kazanmıştır. Bu çalışma, tanımlayıcıbir araştırma olup tarihsel süreçte alışverişmerkezlerinin değişimi ve gelişimini açıklamak, günümüz alışverişmerkezlerinin özelliklerini tanımlamak, alışverişmerkezi yer seçim kriterlerini araştırmak, alışverişmerkezlerinin gelişimini dünya ölçeğinden Türkiye ve İstanbul ölçeğine inerek incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu çalışma da ICSC'nin ve DeLisle'nin dünyadaki; AMPD'nin Türkiye'deki alışveriş merkezleri sınıflandırması ve özellikleri açıklanmıştır. Ayrıca alışveriş merkezi yerseçimi sürecinde dikkate alınan konular incelenmiştir. Türkiye alışveriş merkezleri gelişim süreci sayısal verilerle ele alınmıştır. Türkiye alışveriş merkezi gelişim süreci 1988–2009 yıllarıarasında incelenmiş, mevcut durum ve gelecek öngörüleri değerlendirilmiştir. İstanbul'da alışveriş merkezlerinin gelişim süreci incelenirken öncelikle İstanbul'un coğrafi, sosyo ekonomik statüsü incelenmiştir, kentsel gelişimine ve geleneksel ticaret alanına kısaca değinilmiştir. Son olarak İstanbul'daki süreç içinde var olmuşolan bütün Alışveriş Merkezleri kronolojik olarak ele alınarak, gelişim süreçleri, konumları, yatırımcıları, kentsel mekanla ilişkisi, fiziki özellikleri, ulaşım ve erişebilirliği incelenerek değerlendirme yapılmaktadır. Değerlendirmeler sonucunda Alışveriş Merkezlerinin yer seçimi, kentsel mekanla olan uyumu ile ilgili çıkarımlar ve zamanla birbirine benzeyen Alışveriş Merkezlerinin gelecekteki durumları ile ilgili öngörülerde bulunulmaktadır. Kuruluş yeri seçiminde sadece bugünün koşulları değil, geleceğin de planlanması gerekmektedir. Günümüzde alışveriş merkezleri, kentteki kamusal alanların ve kent merkezlerinin işlevlerini üstlenecek yeni kent simülasyonları yaratmaya çalışmaktadır. Ancak, alışveriş merkezi gelişiminde görülen bu hızlı artışa tezat olarak, Türkiye'deki alışveriş merkezlerinin ortaya çıkışlarındaki ekonomik ve sosyal dinamikleri inceleyen; bu küresel yapı tipolojisinin mekansal senaryosunun şekillenişindeki yerel etkileri tartışan dünyadaki alışveriş merkezleri ile karşılaştırmalı analizler yapan ve bu alışveriş merkezlerinin yerşeçim tercihlerini inceleyip kıyaslayan çalışma bulunmamaktadır. Diğer gayrimenkul yatırımlarından farklı olarak, popüleritesini korumak ve ziyaretçi sayısını arttırmak için sürekli yenilenme sürecinde olan alışveriş merkezlerinde, kullanıcı memnuniyeti önemli bir yer tutmakta ve buna bağlı olarak sürdürülebilir bir yatırım yapılabilmesi için de yatırımcıların doğru konumu belirlemeleri oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, alışveriş merkezi yer seçiminde önemli olan faktörlerin ağırlıklarının belirlenmesinde sübjektif yargıların rahatlıkla kullanılabildiği AHP tekniği kullanılmıştır. Türkiye genelinde faaliyet gösteren ve genel merkezi İstanbul'da olan firmalar değerlendirilmiş ve örneklem içerisine bu firmaların karar verici birimi olan proje geliştirme departmanındaki yöneticiler dahil edilmiştir. 23 farklı alışveriş merkezi geliştiren firmada toplamda 108 adet anket, yüz yüze görüşme tekniği kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Yapılan literatür taramalarında hem alışveriş merkezi yatırımı için doğru yer seçimini hem de yapılan bu yatırımın kullanıcılar tarafından değerlendirildiği 2 analizin birlikte kullanılmadığı görülmüştür. bu anlamada çalışma kapsamında kullanıcı memnuniyetinin belirlenmesine yönelik de analizler yapılıp sonunda karşılaştırılmıştır. Kullanıcı memnuniyetinin analizi için ise 7 farklı özellikteki alışveriş merkezi seçilerek toplamda 420 adet anket yapılmış ve bunlar tek yönlü varyans analizi, faktör ve regresyon analizlerinde değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan çalışma sonucunda erişebilirlik, sosyo-ekonomik faktörler, iyi bir Pazar analizini gerektirecek olan rekabet ortamı ve gelecekteki gelişmeler kriterleri önem derecesi olarak ilk sırada yer alan unsurlar olmuştur. Yapılan bu çalışma, doğru yer seçim kriterlerinin anlaşılabilmesi, değerlendirilmesi ve buna bağlı olarak doğru yatırımların yapılabilmesi için yol gösterici olacaktır.

Summary:

Shopping malls are the most glorious places these days with their attractive shops and a wide variety people where people spend their weekends to relax and shop. With the changing tastes and preferences of customers, shopping malls extend a global impact across metros, cities and towns. In the last decade, even though the importance of shopping centers appear to decrease day by day, their place within the Turkish real estate market displays a considerable rise. Among those reasons underlying the increase of investments on shopping malls take place the stability of the economic environment, the insufficiency of supply within the market of shopping centers, the young and dynamic population, the increase on gross domestic product, and the high profit ratio compared to other countries. As an explanatory research, this study targets at evaluating the changes and development of shopping centers in history, identifying the characteristics of today's shopping centers, examining the location criteria of shopping centers, and focusing on the development of shopping centers from the world-wide scale to Turkey and Istanbul. This study examined factors that influence the selection of a shopping center location and explains these factors through a conceptual model. By means of a comprehensive literature search, a theoretical framework of factors affecting preference was established and relevant research questions were chosen. Field research included companies that operate in Istanbul but which make investments in shopping centers throughout Turkey. This study has dwelled upon the characteristics and classification of shopping centers in the world by ICSC and DeLisle and of those in Turkey by AMPD. Among the examined issues take place the adopted criteria in selection of location for shopping centers and the development process of Turkish shopping centers as based on quantitative information obtained. The development process of shopping centers in Turkey have been analyzed for the period between 1988-2009 and in addition to existing circumstances, future considerations have also been made. Examination of the development process of shopping centers in Istanbul, on the other hand, has involved consideration of firstly the geographical and socio-economic status of the city, and then of the urban development profile as well as the traditional trade district. In the final stage of the examination, all shopping centers in Denizli have been chronologically analyzed in terms of their development processes, investors, relations with the urban pattern, physical characteristics, transportation facilities and accessibility. In result of the comparative evaluation, discussions focus mainly on the location of shopping centers and their harmony with the urban pattern as well as their future strategies against the threat of becoming identical with one another. Qualitative research included a face-to-face survey and in-depth interviews of 108 project development representatives from 23 companies. The results were evaluated using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique. AHP is a method of analyzing decision-making that quantifies and compares elements of a decision to determine a hierarchy. The data revealed that accessibility, socio-economic factors, competitive environment, and future developments were ranked of high importance. A good analysis of the market is required. The results of the study have been evaluated by applying One-way Analysis of Varience, Factor Analysis and Regressional Analysis. These methods can be defined as the decision-making and estimating method, which gives the percentage distribution of decision points in terms of factors affecting decisions; it is used in the identification of decision hierarchy. The occurrence of a competitive environment with the increase in the number of shopping centers in our country, there is not enough research to provide guidance to investors as well as to enliven the retail industry. The purpose of this paper is to investigate retail site selection criteria in community centers and ascertain the implications of these criteria for the retail real estate developer. Historically, real estate developers contemplating the development of a community center will acquireasite based on hunches, experience, and a limited amount of data. Real estate academics, on the other hand, have produced numerous mathematical models and methods for retail site selection. However, to the real estate developer the retail community shopping center has remained elusive. Not only will developers oftentimes face the prospect of site selection without a complete Picture of who their tenants will be, but they will be left to their own experience to understand in depth the needs and preferences of typical community center tenants. Consumers shopping during the decision-making mechanisms, has been the subject of several investigations, research result, consumers; expectations and are subject to many classifications according to their preferences (Patel, 2008). The purpose of this classification is done, analyzing and addressing the client's best shopping malls in the light of the information obtained is to be developed. In this section, the study carried out among customers, from the architecture of the shopping center, a few studies which have been studied related to expectations. Of investors trying to make a profit, as well as relating to the region, consistent with user expectations attached to the need to build shopping center type has revealed. Hence to understand user expectations "Consumer Expectation Analysis" has made attempts to identify. The steps in this context during operation (work flow) are as follows: Consumer and investor based measurements, determination of the size of the model creation, Determination of studies analyzed in shopping centers, Survey to determine the types of questions used in the form of questions and the creation of the questionnaire, According to the results of a pilot study examining the results of the questionnaire was updated, The implementation of face-to-face survey. The collection of data, Obtained with the method according to statistical analysis, Acquisition and interpretation of results. Survey studies forming the basis of the questionnaire data related to the preparation and sample selection are presented in this section. Aaker (1991) proposed model for the measurement of consumer based brand equity on a multidimensional scale developed by Yoo and Donthu (2001) is considered the first work in the literature and has been verified. The scale developed by Yoo and return the survey questions were the basis for the prepared. A pilot study done prior to the survey and the results of this study will be used to minimize the number of questions, we understood, was aimed to increase the applicability and consistency. Testing of the draft questionnaire, in order to compensate the missing pilot study was conducted in approximately 20 subjects. The subjects offered as part of the pilot study were asked to answer the questionnaire draft. General survey of the structure and the number of questions to be answered in a healthy way is made to check whether it is appropriate. Pilot study data obtained have been made in the light of modifications to the questionnaire. Despite a considerable number of shopping center oriented studies both at home and abroad, in the literature, a study on determining the level of importance of the factors influencing costumer satisfaction and expectation selection could not be detected. This study looks into the factors that are influential on the preferences for shopping center's costumers satisfaction and expectation selection and explains these factors through a conceptual model. By means of a comprehensive literature search, the theoretical framework of the factors affecting the causes of preference is established and relevant research questions are chosen. Thus, the theoretical foundations of the model have been created. The field research includes the 7 different types of shopping centers that operate in Istanbul. In this study, among the qualitative research methods, in-depth interview technique and interview form approach are preferred. Interviews have been held with people from shopping center's costumers pursuing different characteristics. In 7 different shopping center, 420 questionnaires in total have been given by using face-to-face interview technique. The results of the study have been evaluated by applying One-way Analysis of Varience, Factor Analysis and Regressional Analysis. These methods can be defined as the decision-making and estimating method, which gives the percentage distribution of decision points in terms of factors affecting decisions; it is used in the identification of decision hierarchy. This study aims at becoming a source for shopping centre investors, developers, architects and other related disciplines; additionally, expects all these sides to act with the knowledge of what is expected from them. The results of this study can serve as a resource for shopping center investors, developers, architects, and members of related disciplines as well as providing direction on what is expected of them. The rise in the levels of economic growth and development and the impact of globalization emerged with the rapid changes in all areas of life as well as consumers and consumer buying habits are also affected. Economic production centers in the cities of the collection, mobilization of labor to urban areas and the urban population has resulted in increasing day by day. Concentrated in certain centers of these people's consumption habits changed with the urbanization process, many elements are left to the new location. In this context of large shopping centers emerged and began to serve this consumer group was observed. Many stores within the keep and when you shop at the same time food, recreation, entertainment, personal care, sports facilities such as by delivering a secure environment by providing leisure time can create an environment, shopping centers, a center of attraction transforms. As a result of these changes and developments in large shopping centers, shopping for consumers, easy, convenient, varied, enjoyable and has become more economically feasible. These centers, most high-income to low income levels that cater to every segment of society has attracted the attention of a wide audience. Thus, major shopping centers, the products, services, innovations, prices, the value created of the day and night in a fraction into the field service options constantly be preferred in the retailing industry is now a huge emphasis has. As a result, the concept of shopping with the opening of large shopping centers has gained a new meaning.