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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Makine Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı / Konstrüksiyon ve İmalat Bilim Dalı

Anahtarla açma-kapama özelliğine sahip iki kutuplu yan topraklamalı Alman tipi priz konstrüksiyonu

Integrated switch design for two-pole side earthed German type electric outlets

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Özet:

Günümüzde evlerde kullanılan elektronik ve elektrikli cihazların çeşit ve sayılarında belirgin bir artış olmuş, bu cihazların bağlandığı ve elektrik enerjisi temin ettikleri prizlerin ev ve odalardaki sayıları da buna paralel artış göstermiştir. Bir yandan da toplumda teknoloji, estetik ve kalite algıları yükselmiş, üretici firmaların sürekli olarak güncel teknoloji eğilimlerini ve kullanıcılara kolaylık sağlayabilecek her türlü detayı takip etmesi ihtiyacı günden güne daha güçlü hale gelmiştir. Tüm bu gelişmelerle birlikte, güvenliğe verilen önem de her zamankinden daha yüksek konuma ulaşmıştır. Bu bağlamda, ev tipi elektrik prizlerinde günümüz ihtiyaç ve beklentilerine yönelik olarak sunulan fonksiyonlar da; kaçak akım korumalı, gerilim darbesi korumalı, otomatik devre kesici ve benzeri özellikli ürünler olarak gelişmiştir.Uluslararası ölçekte bakıldığında, evlerde kullanılmakta olan elektrik prizleri ile ilgili en önemli özelliğin bir düzineye yakın değişik standartta ve birbiri ile uyumsuz priz çeşidi olduğu fark edilmektedir. Bu değişik yapıdaki priz sistemlerinin takıldıkları duvarda bırakılan standart boşluklar da birbirinden farklı boyutlardadır ve ülkemizde de kullanılmakta olan Alman tipi standardlara uygun duvar boşluğu, örneğin İngiliz ve İtalyan standardına göre daha küçük ölçülerdedir. Bu durum, Alman standardı priz sisteminin benimsendiği ülkelerde tek bir sıva altı prize entegre edilebilecek fonksiyonlar bakımından kısıtlayıcı bir unsur teşkil etmektedir.Bu tezde ele alınan ürün, İngiliz ve İtalyan standardı priz sistemlerinde sıkça rastlanan fakat yukarıda belirtilen boyut kısıtları nedeni ile Alman standardında uygulanmasının sorunlu olduğu görülen, üzerine entegre bir anahtarla açılıp kapatılması mümkün olacak bir elektrik prizidir.Projenin temel amacı ise, Alman tipi elektrik prizlerinde anahtarlama özelliğinin kolayca ve yaygın biçimde kullanımını sağlamak, ve böylece günümüz toplumunun güvenlik, enerji tasarrufu ve kullanım kolaylığı gibi taleplerine daha iyi biçimde cevap veren bir elektrik prizi konstrüksiyonunu ortaya koymaktır.Bu amaç ve tespitten yola çıkılarak, Makel Elektrik Malzemeleri A.Ş. bünyesinde, üzerine entegre edilen bir anahtarla elektrik devresini açma kapama özelliğine sahip yan topraklama kontaklı Alman tipi (CEE 7/4) elektrik prizi ile ilgili olmak üzere, öncelikle patent ve pazar araştırmaları yapılmıştır. Daha sonra konstrüksiyon kısıtları ortaya konulmuş ve sistematik biçimde kavramsal konstrüksiyon önerileri oluşturulmuştur. Üretilebilirlik, maliyet, kullanım güvenliği gibi kriterlere göre değerlendirilen alternatiflerden, incelenen kriterlere göre en başarılı bulunan konstrüksiyon önerisi seçilmiş, sonrasında bu konstrüksiyonun, üretici firmanın olanakları, imalat ve montaj usullerine göre detaylandırılarak, hızlı prototipleme yöntemleri ile prototip üretimi gerçekleştirilmiştir.Konstrüktif geliştirme safhalarında, sistematik konstrüksiyon prensipleri benimsenmiş; bunlardan projede uygulanabilir adımlar belirlenerek takip edilmiştir. Montaj ve imalat odaklı konstrüksiyon yaklaşımı gözetilerek, sonuç konstrüksiyonun uygun maliyetle üretilebilir rekabetçi bir ürün olması amaçlanmıştır.Bu projenin sonucu olarak; hem ölçü, imalat, montaj, standardlar, malzeme, maliyet, kullanım kolaylığı gibi birçok kısıtlamalara cevap veren, hem de toplumun bir ihtiyacı için çözüm ortaya koyacak konstrüksiyona sistematik olarak ulaşılmasında yol gösterebilecek bir tez çalışması ortaya konulmuştur.

Summary:

There has been a significant increase in the number and types of electronic and electrical apparatuses used in our homes today, accordingly the electrical outlets that provide electricity connected to these devices and the number of rooms in a house has a parallel increase. On the other hand, increased perceptions of technology, aesthetics and quality in today?s community, pushed manufacturers more powerfully day by day, to constantly update technology trends and provide more convenience to users in every aspect and detail of the products.Among all of these developments, the importance of security has reached the highest position than ever before. In this context, a variety of household electrical outlets, which have different functions, are also presented according to the needs and expectations of today. For example, leakage current protection device, surge protection device, automatic circuit breaker and products with other features are developed.At an international scale, the most important feature of electrical outlets, which are used in homes, is nearly a dozen different types of socket that are dissimilar to each other and incompatible with each other?s standards. This feature also represents a problem to international travelers, which is to be solved in another case. Nevertheless, this problem is also a highly considered and waiting for a solution for our modern globalized-world today.The subject of this thesis mainly considers the apertures left in the walls, in which the system components are installed. There are different in sizes and standards for these discrete structures. Unfortunately, suitable aperture size for the system in our country Turkey (the German type standard) is the smallest of all other systems. For example, it is considerably smaller than English and Italian standard systems in size. This situation constitutes a restrictive factor in terms of functions that can be integrated in a single flush mounted socket, for the countries that adopted German standard socket system.The product discussed in this thesis, is an electrical socket, which will be able to be turned on and off with a switch integrated on it. This design is common in the British and the Italian standard socket systems, however it is found problematic for the implementation in the German standard due to the above-mentioned size constraints. Today, it is seen that switched German type electrical outlets are very rare or expensive and a new product responding to this market need will be highly appreciated by home users, who seek a higher security standard for home electrical devices.So, the main objective of the project is the construction of a power outlet.to provide easy and widespread use of the property of switching in German type power outlets. Thus determining a product that it meets the demands of today's society (such as the security, energy savings and ease of use), in a better way than existing inadequate few products of the market today. If this task will be accomplished, there is no doubt that the product will be a success and the firm producing it will gain a great profit from this accomplishment.On the basis of this analysis within Makel Electrical Equipment Co., patent and market researching, related to the German type (CEE 7/4) electrical outlet with side grounding contacts which is capable of opening and closing the electrical circuit with a switch integrated on-site, is primarily made. According to this research, it is found that the idea of making a switchable German type electrical outlet is not a new one. A variety of patented solution exist beginning from 1930?s, and continuing to today. Among these solutions, none of them responded the problem thoroughly and this can be easily proved that no product marketed today is known and sold as wide as non-switched ones. According to the market research that is made, only some non-practical single products with socket-side switches and some very expensive products with sophisticated functions, which contain switching as an auxiliary function, exists.After the research on patent literature and market, the design constraints are put forward according the many existing regulations and standards about electrical component that are used in houses. These constraints, which span both design measures to be applied and some strict properties of material properties such as being flame retardant, etc., are examined thoroughly. Then they are listed in detail to create a reference database for further design stages.By having a clear understanding of the situation of today?s products, the patent literature from beginning of the usage of electricity at homes to today, and all of the regulation that constraint the design process of electrical product that are to be used in houses; conceptual design alternatives are developed systematically. In the constructive development stages, systematic construction principles were strictly used, by determining which steps can be adopted to be applied to the project. Beginning from a most abstract idea of a switching socket to a fully solved concrete physical product proposal, all the design progress is made evolutionary and traceable.First ideas were analyzed to create sub-functional structures and then physical sub-solution proposals are associated with these functions. Then most suitable physical sub-solutions were selected and combined to create there different design alternatives.Then, the design alternatives are evaluated according to some criteria. These criteria, such as manufacturability, cost, and user safety, are identified according to common expectations in electrical goods production industry, market and user needs. The criteria are given quotients according to their overall importance and each design alternative is scored considering these criteria. After this evaluation process, design alternatives are given technical value points and those are considered for elimination.Then the most successful design alternative according to the examined criteria is selected and detailed in accordance with the manufacturer's facilities, manufacturing and the installation procedures. In all stages of engineering design process, efficiency and cost of the final product is taken into account, so that the output will be the most beneficial for both the firm and the potential users of the product. So the usage-scenarios of the product are evaluated to create a problem-free product life cycle and the production schemes are planned to have the easiest manufacturing methods. Also by taking assembly and production-oriented design approach into consideration, the final design is intended to be a cost-effectively produced, competitive product.Later, this design solution is prototyped with rapid prototyping methods. And the function of the product is thoroughly checked to ensure the design process is successful. The prototype will also be used to communicate with the marketing crew of the firm, so that they can be sure of the features of the product and there will be as less as possible future surprises regarding the new product.As a result of this project; a thesis study is carried out to show the way to responding to the many constraints such as measure, manufacture, installation, standards, materials, cost, ease of use, etc., while on the other hand, achieving a solution to a need of the society and the market by means of systematic approach in engineering design.