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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı / Mimari Tasarım Bilim Dalı

İstanbul'daki üniversite kütüphanelerinde mekan ile kullanıcı ilişkilerinin sentaktik olarak irdelenmesi

Syntactic examination of the relationships between space and user behaviors in university libraries in Istanbul

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Özet:

Kütüphane mekanları geçmişten günümüze gelişim sürecinde teknolojik, mimari ve sosyal olarak geçirdiği evrimlerle içerik, mekan, kullanım ve kullanıcı profili olarak değişime uğramış, yeni mekansal deneyimler ve kullanım pratiklerine sahne olmaya başlamıştır. Bilginin kayıt yöntemleri değiştikçe her çağda mekansal ihtiyaçları değişmiş, günümüz teknolojisi ile bilginin elektronik ortamda depolanmaya başlaması sonucu artık kitapların raflara dizilerek saklandığı mekanlardan, bilgilerin bulutta depolanıp halka sunulduğu mekanlara dönüşmüş; mekanlar da kitap depolama dışında başka işlevlere odaklanmıştır. Kitaplar yoluyla bilgiye ulaşma imkanı veren mekanlar olmaktan çıkıp daha çok sanal yollarla bilgiye erişme imkanı tanıyan, sosyal bir ortam olarak kullanıcıya araştırma, çalışma, vakit geçirme imkanı veren esnek mekanlara dönüşmüştür. Bu tez çalışmasında çalışmasında İstanbul'da 20.yüzyılın ikinci yarısı ve 21.yüzyıl başlarında tasarlanan ve uygulanan üniversite kütüphanelerinde mekan morfolojisi ve mimari programının mekan kullanımı ile ilişkisi mekan dizim yöntemleri ile incelenmiş; üniversite kütüphanelerinin mekan morfolojisi ve mimari programının kullanıma sunduğu esneklik araştırılmıştır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, hem modern kütüphanelerdeki mekan kullanım alışkanlıklarını ortaya çıkarmak, hem de modern kütüphanelerin sahip olduğu morfoloji ve mimari programları irdeleyerek kullanıcıya sunduğu esnekliği inceleyerek bu durumun avantajlarını ve dezavantajlarını tartışmaktır. Bu bağlamda İstanbul Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi, Galatasaray Üniversitesi Suna Kıraç Kütüphanesi, Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Şehit Prof.Dr. İlhan Varank Kütüphanesi olmak üzere İstanbul'daki beş üniversite merkez kütüphane binasında kullanıcı davranışı ve belirlenen mekansal eylemler üzerine gözlemler ve mekansal analizler yapılmış, mekan programı ve morfolojisinin mekan kullanımına etkileri araştırılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonucunda, çalışmaya konu olan üniversite kütüphane binalarında mekandaki kullanıcı sayısı, mekansal davranış ve morfolojik bağlama göre mekanın mimari program yoluyla esnek veya katı bir karakter kazanmakta olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmaya konu olan üniversite kütüphanelerinin hepsinde her ne kadar açık plan uygulanmış olsa ve esnek programlı yapı morfolojisi bulunsa da mekansal davranış örüntülerinin çoğunlukla mekan programıyla daha uyumlu olarak ortaya çıktığı tespit edilmiştir.

Summary:

Library spaces hadhad gone through enormous transformations throughout history. Within technological, architectural and social developments, libraries' changed space, content, usage, user profile had changed and started to have room for new spatial experiences and usage practices. For example, as information recording methods had changed in consequence of technological developments, spatial needs of libraries had changesd as a result almost in every age. Considering library spaces historically in order to understand the transformation process of library spaces, it iscan be seen that first library spaces were used to record official documents and scientific reports which were written on clay or stone tables. In addition to this content, in regards to building techniques of then, space had taken a form accordingly. There were niches on the walls that surrounding the rooms. However, in the process, paper and book waswere invented and library space had spatial changes that to which made rooms bigger bigger rooms which are and full of stacks unattached to walls. This type of library spaces isare still used in the present time. Since 13th century, universities had owned started to involve their librariesy which were built in the style of those ages and. uUntil the ends of 19th century, they were used to sheltered books and scientific documents primarily. After the 16th century when pressing technology developed, book production became easier and so number of books increased. Thus, it was the big issue that how to store books storing books became a major issue while they were increasing continually until the second half of the 20th century. In this age, digitalization came forward and information resources started to be stored in clouds but not as printed materials. By this development, information resources became accessible online, thuswithout coming visiting libraryies has gone less popular and libraries stopped being a store house of books where people came to reach information resources, which was primary motivation of using a library. However, according to researchers, even though library spaces lost their primary reason of being and so as their primary function, they started to be used more than ever and became a kind of public space that people came to make research, study or spend time in a social space in addition to using information resources. Besides information recording techniques; as building construction techniques and materials developed, providing spatial needs gained new forms as well. For example, size of spaces, storing books, lightening systems, isolation etc. are important issues for libraries and depend on construction systems and materials. Within developments, new techniques and materials started to be used to solve these issues and spaces had transformationsed too. In addition to all, within social developments and spreading democratic movements, social class discriminations dissolved; so libraries, and other kinds of spaces which were used by only noble and educated people, opened to high and low eventually. Thus, every walk of life started to use libraries in order to reach every kind of information resources. As a result, space configuration had reformed and there occurred reading area in the libraries in the 17th century as a conclusion. This space configuration had become a prototype for libraries over time and library spaces started to be designed and built in regards to their function since 18th century. Even though, these functional spaces were not separated by walls or other building elements; they were separated by furnishings. In other words, even though they were built in open plan understanding, functional schemata of space and setting of furniture built up zoning in libraries. Besides, this usage and spatial order are still relevant in libraries, today, by the technological developments, information storage does not require physical material anymore so as physical space. As information resources, architecture of space and user profiles changed in time, spatial needs and use have changed as well. As a result of these, libraries have split up in regards to user profile and content. Architectural and spatial notions also have taken took new forms and spaces became open and flexible as a must in order to sustain serving people with every kind of spatial manners and requests for a long time as a result of all these developments. Today, libraries started to be places that allow users make research and study all over the whole library spaces and also socialize with other people by discussing aloud, eating and drinking with them. In sum, libraries had fixed spatial organizations and usage schematas because of their architecture until modernist age and now they started to contain fluid spaces for fluid functions as a result of architectural, technological and social changes. The factors that affect library use have been in focused for many researches in different fields in the literature. Especially, researchers who specialized on librarianship, and information technologies have made numerous studies about library useusage and technology. However most of these studies are focused on methods of storing, searching and accessing resources. In addition to that, there are also studies on architecture of libraries which focused on how physical environment factors of interior like lightening, sound, color etc. influence space use preferences in libraries. However, there are limited investigations on spatial morphology, functional schemata of space, user behaviors and relationships between these factors in libraries while library use is increases and this issue have become more and more important day by day. Moreover, studies on libraries in architecture field have mostly centered upon public libraries whereas other types of libraries are visited as much as public libraries. In this context, this thesis study focuses on university library buildings and examines their spatial morphology, architectural program and their relationships with space use patterns in order to understand their spatial flexibility and effects on user behaviors by using space syntax methodologies. For this study, environment behavior theories are taken as theoretical background; "natural movement theory" and "weak/strong programme" phenomenon, which are principal assertions of space syntax theory, are taken as the base of the investigation. It is hypothesized that university library buildings are mostly used under the affects of their architectural programmes, even though they have morphologies which allow people use space as natural movement theories suggested. In the frame of this study, five university libraries are taken as samples which are Boğaziçi University Aptullah Kuran Library, Galatasaray University Suna Kıraç Library, Istanbul Technical University Mustafa Inan Library, Istanbul University Merkez Library and Yıldız Technical University Sehit Prof. Dr. Ilhan Varank Library. The main criteria for the selection of these university libraries are being built as library building and subject to government universities in order to collect more accurate and comparable data about their spatial morphological qualities, architectural programme and space use. Spatial morphology and architectural programme of these libraries are analysed using space syntax methods and space use habits are ascertained by observing how users circulate and occupy spaces in the library systematically. As a matter of fact, Bill Hillier, who set forth space syntax approach, suggested that libraries are weak programmed buildings and space use takes form as morphology leads and allows to be. However, according to examination of selected five university libraries, libraries can be weak or strong programmed in regards to different morphological contexts, different densities of users, different spatial behavior and different time periods. Hence, the main hypothesis of this thesis is correct but underestimateds by suggesting libraries having morphology of weak programme but being strong programmed. To conclude, university libraries carry both weak and strong programme characteristics at the same time considering spatial behaviors.