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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Jeoloji Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı

İznik-Mecidiye (Bursa) bölgesinde eosen volkanitlerindekikuvars damarlarına bağlı gelişen cevherleşme potansiyelinin belirlenmesi

Determinatin of the mineralization potential of quartz veins in eosen volcanics of the Iznik-Mecidiye (Bursa) region

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Özet:

İnceleme alanının temelinde Permiyen-Triyas yaşlı metamorfik kayaçlar bulunmaktadır Bu temel üzerine açısal uyumsuzlukla Üst Kretase yaşlı sedimanter kayaçlar gelmektedir Başlıca çamurtaşı, şeyl ve kumtaşından oluşan birim Kızılağaç Tepe ve Pilav Tepe civarında yüzlek vermektedir Bu birimler üzerine ise açısal uyumsuzlukla Eosen yaşlı volkanitler gelmektedir Mecidiye ve civarında geniş alanlarda yüzlek veren volkanitler yer yer eğim atımlı faylar ile kesilmektedir İnceleme alanında bulunun Eosen volkanitleri (Kızderbent volkanitleri) kuzey, orta ve güney olmak üzere üç zonda görülmektedir Mecidiye bölgesinde yer alan volkanikler bazalttan dasite kadar değişen bileşimdeki kayalardan oluşmaktadır Bu birimler formüllerinde su içeren ve içermeyen mafik mineralleri kapsamalarına göre "sulu" ve "susuz" seri olmak üzere iki toplulukta sınıflandırılmıştır Sulu seriye ait lavlar mafik mineral olarak klinoproksen, amfibol içerirler Susuz seriye ait lavlar ise mafik mineral olarak piroksen içermektedirler Eosen volkanitleri içerisinde gözlenen fay ve eklem düzlemleri boyunca kuvars damarları gözlenmiştir Bu kuvars damarları boyunca opak minerallere ve alterasyonlara rastlanmıştır Hidrotermal çözeltilerden etkilenmiş Kızderbent volkanitlerinde pirit ve kalkopirit gibi sülfitli; manyetit, hematit ve götit gibi oksit ve hidroksitli mineraller belirlenmiştir Jeokimyasal sonuçlar kayaçların bazalttan dasite kadar değişen geniş bir aralıkta olduğunu ve bunların kalkalkalen ve yüksek potasyumlu kalkalkalen nitelikte olduğunu göstermektedir Kayaçların N-MORB'a ve ilksel mantoya göre normalize edilmiş örümcek diyagramlarında geniş iyon yarıçaplı elementler (LIL) açısından (Sr, Rb, K, Ba, Th) bir zenginleşme gözlenirken, HFS (Ta, Nb, P) elementler açısından ise tüketilme ve normalize edilmiş MORB çizgisine göre bir paralellik görülmektedir Yapılan Y-Sr/Y ve (Yb)n-(La/Yb)n diyagramlarında Eosen volkanitleri klasik yay serileri alanlarında yoğunlaşmaktadır Adakitik alanlara da yer yer düşen örneklerde genel eğilim volkainazmanın normal yay serisi alanlarında olduğunu göstermektedir Kayaçların özellikle yaygın bir şekilde silisleştiği zonlarda görülen Au anomalisi (0 ...

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Summary:

Armutlu Peninsula is located in Armutlu-Almacık Zone The Armutlu Peninsula, which is limited to the İstanbul-Zonguldak zone in the north, the Sakarya continent in the south and the branches of the North Anatolian Fault are are divided into three as the north, middle, and south zones Today, these three zones are limited by the North Anatolian Fault The North Zone consists of the Armutlu metamorphic assemblage and overlying the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary cover units The middle zone is predominantly dominated by 2 tectonic units These units are the İznik Metamorphic Community and the Gevye Metaophiolite The northern and middle zones are overlain by Late Mesozoic-Late Tertiary units The southern zone includes the Sakarya continent units The study area (İznik-Mecidiye) is located to the south east of the Marmara Region, to the north-east of the Iznik Lake Iznik district is connected to Bursa province and is 85 km away On the basis of the study area, Permian-Triassic metamorphic rocks are present Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks are unconformably overlain by this basement The unit, which is mainly composed of mudstone, shale and sandstones, forms around Kızılağaç Hill and Pilav Hill The Eocene volcanics are unconformably overlain by these units The volcanics which are exposed in large areas around Mecidiye are cut by slope-slip faults The Eocene volcanics (Kızderbent volcanics) in the study area can be seen in three zones as north, middle and south This work was carried out by field, laboratory and office work A geological map of an area of approximately 30 km2 remaining on the G23-d3 map of Bursa with a scale of 1/25000 is made A total of 50 samples are collected at each location where observations were made, representing lithology, for mineralogical, petrographic and chemical analyzes Laboratory studies include chemical analyzes and mineralogicalpetrographical surveys Office work indicates interpretation of all data obtained, collection under specified headings, forming of graphs and tables, and thus passing all data and writing stage The mineralogical and textural characteristics of the Eocene volcanic rocks were determined As a result of polarizing microscopy, rocks were classified according to their modal ratios and phenocrystalline and dough contents are determined The volcanics in the Mecidiye region are composed of rocks ranging from basalt to dasite This units are divided into two main groups according to their mineralogical features (according to their formulas and they contain mafic minerals with water or not); as anhydrous lava series and hydrous lava series The lava from hydrous series are composed of andesitic and trachy-andesitic rocks which contain clinoproxene and xx amphibole as mafic minerals Anhydrous series are represented by basaltic and basaltic andesitic rocks This rocks are made by plagioclase + clinopyroxene + opaque minerals Along the fault and joint planes within the Eocene volcanics, quartz veins observed Opaque minerals and alterations were found along these quartz veins Kızderbent volcanics affected by hydrothermal solutions include sulphide such as pyrite and chalcopyrite; minerals with oxide and hydroxid such as magnetite, hematite and goethite were determined In order to determine the geochemical properties of 60 samples taken from the study area, major, trace and rare element analyzes are examined in the geochemistry laboratory (ITU-JAL) in Geochemistry Department of Minin Faculty of Geological Engineering Department Diagrams were created according to the results of the chemical analysis of the selected 40 samples and the properties of the samples were determined Detailed data are obtained by using ICP-MS and XRF devices The geochemical results show that the rocks are in a wide range ranging from basalt to dasite and they are calcalkaline and high potassium calc-alkaline While an enrichment is observed in spider diagrams normalized according to N-MORB and primary mantle in terms of elements of wide ion radius (LIL) (Sr, Rb, K, Ba, Th), in terms of HFS (Ta, Nb, P) elements there is depletion and there is a parallelism to the normalized MORB line Nb, Th, Ti, and P elements show a relatively negative anomaly while Pb shows positive anomaly These data are characteristic for the subduction zone and post-collision lava The negative Eu anomaly seen in the diagrams reflects the effects of a shell-based addition to the mafic magma, or it is a reduction caused by crystallization of plagioclases The overall result obtained from all tectonic divergence diagrams reveals that the Eocene volcanics are the end products of the subduction The Harker diagrams were used in order to compare / differentiate the magma series with SiO2, which is a simple but very useful method Thanks to the trends obtained from these diagrams, it is possible to comment on issues such as cold crystallization, magma mixture and partial melting The general characteristics observed in the Harker diagrams are as follows: Al2O3 MgO, CaO, TiO2 ve Fe2O3 show a tendency to decrease against increasing silica value This negative trend shows that the main oxides are consumed in magma and enter the crystal structure These trends observed in diagrams can be interpreted as the rocks coming from the same magma The Au anomaly (0 ...

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