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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi / Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü

Yunan sanatında grifon, sfenks ve kentauros

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Özet:

ÖZET Yunan mitolojisinde yer alan fantastik yaratıklardan grifon, sfenks ve kentauros Yunan Sanatında taş, pişmiş toprak ve metal eserler üzerinde sık sık tasvir edilmiştir. Araştırmada bu yaratıkların ne şekilde, ne amaçla ve hangi bölgelerde görüldüklerinden bahsedilmiştir. t Araştırmanın giriş kısmında konunun seçilme sebebi, yöntem ve yararlanılan başlıca kaynaklardan söz edilmiştir. İkinci bölümde Yunan Uygarlığı' ndan bahsederken alt başlıklarda Perslerle olan savaşkandan da söz edilen tarihi, kısaca tanrılarına değinilen dini ve geometrik dönemden Hellenistik sonuna kadar gelişimi izlenen sanatı ele alınmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde alt başlıklar içinde karışık mitolojik yaratıklardan grifon, sfenks ve kentaurosun gelişimi üzerinde durulmuştur. İlk görüldüğü yerler, görevleri, efsaneleri ve çeşitli bölgelerdeki değişik tasvirleri bol örnek gösterilerek anlatılmıştır. Tezin dördüncü bölümünde grifon, sfenks ve kentauros alt başlıklarında kısaca bu yaratıkların Yunan Sanatı'nda hangi eserler üzerinde görüldüğüne değinildikten sonra alt başlıkların içinde tarih sırasına göre ele alınan örneklerin hangi müzede bulundukları, malzemesi, ölçüsü, bulunduğu yer ve dönemi belirtildikten sonra tasvirine geçilmiştir. Bu hayali yaratıkların sanat eserleri üzerindeki tasvirleri Yunanistan ve İyonya'dan örnekler gösterilerek anlatılmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde ise grifon, sfenks ve kentaurosun Yunan Sanatındaki örneklerindeki özelliklerinden ve Doğu etkilerinden söz edilmiştir. vı

Summary:

SUMMARY: GRIFFINS, SPHlNX AND CENTAURS IN THE GREEK ART The beginning of Greek Civilization depends on the placement of Dors in Greek and establishment of City States since B.C. 10. century. Until the B.C. 700s when the Achae and Mycenae Cultures were destroyed, it is seen geometrical shapes on the vases of Greek Middle Age. The movement in the art began as a result of the effects of commerce with the East in B.C. 8. centruy and imitation of various motives. As a result of these effects in the Archaic age, the East motives were described according to the Greek style. In the classic Age, Athens and Sparta cities became powerful and the Greek righted with Pers in Ionia and Greece. In this Age the art was developed rapidly and mythological and daily life scenes were existes on the vases and statues. In the Hellenistic Age, the past was not forgetten but the more realistic and movable styles existes instead of depending on the strict rules. The structure types increased in the architecture. Stoas, gymnasium, libraries, theatre, bouleuterions and monuments of grave were constructed other than the temples. The various creatures that were seen in the Greek Art since B.C. 8. centruy had already been known in Egypt, Mesopotamia and Syria since B.C. 3000. These creatures occured when the Gods were shown in the shape of human. They were designed extra ordinarly to emphasize their Godness. Griffin, sphinx and Centaurs from these fantastic creatures were around the Gods. They were shown on the various work of arts in Anatolia, Crete and Greece. Griffin were seen firstly in Mesopotamia. The lion body with wings or without wings has a big bird head and beak, generally like eagle. Other griffin tpye is griffin- viidemon. It is a human body that has bird head and beak and wings. Griffin is seen in the religious descirpition of Cretes out of Mesopotamia, on the decorative art of Mycenae and Greece and especially in Egypt and Anatolia. Also the usage of griffin is seen in the old Syria where the Mesopotamian sources live and Persian art. Griffin is described for decorative purposes and as well as for the guardian of the Gods and treasures. The beast can be shown recumbent or seated on its haunches. The Near East version has a crested head while the Greek is usually shown with a row of spiral curils forming a mane. Griffin-demon first appers on Middle Assyrian seals, and » became a very popular Figure in Neo- Assyrian art, especially in the ninth century B.C. The private quarters of the palace of Assurnasirpal II were dominated by reliefs depicting this creature. Griffin-demon were used as foundation deposits to protect houses and palaces. Sphinx that is the creature resembling griffin has a human or ram head, lion body and wings or without wings. It is seen in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Syria, Crete, Mycenae and Greece arts like griffin. The oldest sphinx is a Gize Sphinx in Egypt dated B.C. 2250. The Sphinks passes from Egypt to Syria is with wing and female. It takes place on the seals and ivory arts for decorative purposes. Besides it is seen as embossed design at the orthostat and on the statues at the entrances of temples in Mesopotamia and Anatolia. There are many examples on the seals miniature frescos of Cretan and Mycenaen arts. The Sphinx is described in the Theogonia of Hesiodos. Eventhough it is said that she is the child of Echidna and Orthius, her main father is Typhon. In the other fable she is the daughter of Thebai King. Hesiodos says that there may be three headed creature, Chimaria, sphinx's mother. The legend of her about the Oidipus is very spread. The creature, Centaur, whose upper body is human and other half and legs are horse comes from the East like the other hybrid creatures. The first horse-man is seen in Mesopotamia on Babil boundry stones. Then it is seen on the seals of Kassiti and Middle Assur Ages. In Anatolia it takes place on the Phrygian art as a result of Greece effect. Centaurs most exist in the Greek art. These horse-man in the Greek myth are viaoriginated from Iksion generation. They are mostly wild and furious. They like women and wine. They live in the mountains and forests and eat raw meat. Griffin, shpinx and Centaurs originated from Mesopotamia and Egypt can be seen in the Greek art. Griffin is seen since B.C. 8. century when the effect of East take place. It was seen on the tombs sarcophagus, statues, terracotta tablets, vases, bronze goods and coins. Decorative griffins takes place on the six of the Clazomenai Sarcophagus. There exist opposite griffins on the Likya tomb. There are plant figures between the griffins in walking position on the Didima Apollon Temple's friezes. The bronze protomes of griffin most are seen in Olimpia were well worked. The griffins on the vases are very decorative with the other motives arround it. They are in walking or sitting positions and with open beak. The griffin that is the symbol of Abdera, Assos and Teos take place on the coins. In the Greece the creature has large donkey ears. The beak is often parted to show the curling tongue. Sphinx takes place spreadly in the Greek art from the B.C. 8. century to 6. century. Sphinx like griffin described on the terracotta, stone and metal works in the Greek Art. There exist female winged sphinxes those sitting on their haunches and confronted in pairs at the Assos temple, on the blocks. Sphinx is the grave guardian on the Likya tombs and Attika's grave stones. They were used for decorative purpose on the heads and feet and upper and bottom parts of 17 terracotta Clazomenai Surcophagus. Ivory, bronze, terracotta sphinks statues were made in Ionia and Greece. Female sphinx in the sitting position exist on the vases, jewelleries and coins since the period where the east effects are seen. Centaurs that mostly exist in the Greek Art are seen on the vases and temples for legend situations. The front feet of Centaurs are sometimes human feet but their four feet mostly are horse feet. They are seen at the temples and grave monuments' s friezes as a statue. Centaurs were showed in Centauromakhi or struggles wit Herakles scenes like on the vases, in Anatolia Assos Athena Temple blocks, plates of Larisa Temple, Trisa Gölbaşı Grave Monument, in Greece Olimpia Zeus Temple, Parthenon's metopes and Hephaiston Temple's Frieze of cella. They are described on IXthe narrow faces of Lykia Sarcophagus other than the friezes Centaurs on the upper parts of some Clazomenai Sarcophagus are decorative purposed. In the Hellenistic Age, young and old centaurs statues were built with three dimension. In this research, examples of griffin, sphinx and centaurs in the Orient Art beside The Greek Art had been given place to. This had provided possibility for compare with Greek examples. This thesis is important because of that many descriptions of these creatures on art productions were together.